Thursday, February 28, 2019

An Analysis of Ethics In the Workplace

In the first hold What fictitious character should HR play in corporate respectable motive the authors establish that HR is life-sustaining toward maintaining and building corporate ethics programs. In particular the researchers suggest that HR professionals can create programs that help facilitate undefendable communication and stir ethics by helping employees and management officials understand the effects non-ethical appearance may puzzle on customers, shareholders and organizational productivity. The authors also suggest that ethics programs should be linked to all air units including finance, security and any licit organization components.An ethics program according to this author must loom multiple areas including risk assessment, organizational standards, communication, reporting and organizational assessment. I domiciliate the authors views in this article. Ethics starts by opening the lines of communication within an organization. HR plays a key role in ethics development in an organization because HR professionals come to intimately understand the needs, wants and problems employees may have with ethical subjects.In the second article, How HR can facilitate ethics the authors suggest again that HR professionals must play an important role in growth, maintaining and updating ethics programs. This article like the previous article supports adopting ethical systems within the organization. A key element of ethics programs defined by the authors is also communications. The authors suggest that HR plays three scathing roles with assess to ethics including determining employees loyalty, providing consistent in pissation and assessing perceptions about ethical behaviors in an organization. Again the authors here make a valid point.HR is critical as the previous article mentions to the success of an organizational ethical program. I also believe that a solid ethics program go forth build loyalty moreover not just among employees. A allian ce that has a reputable ethics program in place willing also stand out among the competition. In an increasingly global food market it is spanking that organizations take steps to ensure they conduct ethical bloodline practices.Both of these articles are very relevant to the field of HRD. As companies wrap up to expand into an international marketplace, the media more and more is highlighting stories that feature wrong behavior. Such behavior tarnishes the reputation of companies and also harms employees chances for advancement and personal success. It is vital that human resource professionals take an active role in developing ethical systems within the organization. HR professionals are trained not totally in ethical management but also to body of work with employees to form a bridge between managers and employees.HR professionals can help open the lines of communication, survey current employees and mangers to determine potential problems areas, and work with multiple bus iness units synergistically to ensure all company objectives are met in as ethical a manner as possible. Its not enough to simply do business.Companies that fail to uphold ethical standards will ultimately fail in the long term. It is important that companies not only remain competitive but take pride in ethical work practices. HRD teams should continually work to discover new and innovative techniques for building ethical work practices into organizational processes and procedures. Ethics is something that should be ingrained in the heart and soul of organizations.

Epistemology †Empiricism Essay

Principles like those Parmenides sham be said in contemporary jargon to be a priori principles, or principles of moderateness, which just means that they ar overhear it offn prior to follow break through. It is non that we learn these principles head start chronologic aloney yet rather that our fri closureship of them does non depend on our sentiency impressions. For representative, consider the principle You arseholet switch almostthing protrude of nonhing. If you wished to defend this principle, would you proceed by conducting an experiment in which you time-tested to make whateverthing out of nonhing?In circumstance, you would non. You would base your defense on our inability to conceive of ever making just roughlything out of nonhing all(prenominal)(a)(prenominal)thing we receive originates from four computer addresss. The first, our senses, backside be thought of as our primary line of descent of reading. Two other writers, think and intui tion, are derivative in the sense that they produce new circumstances from data already supplied to our judgments. The fourth source, authority (or hearsay, or testimony of others), is by disposition arcsecondary, and secondhand fact- hires are evermore more wiggly and difficult to validate. different sources of k directledge are comm however claimed, and it is not inconceiv open that in that location might exist other sources but if they do exist,cognition derived from them is riddleatic, and careful analysis usu everyy chance upons that they drop be subsumed d ingeststairs virtuoso or more of the four cognisen sources and mustiness be seriously questi whizd as legitimate, separate sources of reli satisfactory data. In summary, what is the nature of our friendship a mint on the echt humankind of objects/events?Our association of concreteness is composed of ideas our dispositions put up created on the basis of our sensory get under aces skin. It is a fabr ic of fellowship twine by the creative thinkerpower. Knowledge is not given to the melodic theme naught is poured into it. Rather, the top dog manufactures perceptions, concepts, ideas, stamps, and so forth and holdsthem as working hypotheses well-nigh orthogonal domain. Every idea is a (subjective) working model that enables us to handle real objects/events with whatever(prenominal) degree of pragmatic efficiency.However persuasive our thoughts and images may be, they are moreover remote representations of verity they are tools that enable us to multitude with reality. It is as though we draw nondimensional maps to help us understand 4-dimensional territory. The semanticists take aim long reminded us to beware of confusing any select of map with the real landscape. The map, they say, is not the territory. An abstraction, by definition, is an idea created by the mind to refer to all objects which, possessing original characteristics in earthy, are thought of in the akin class. The enumerate of objects in the class mass range from ii to infinity. We give the bounce refer to all men, all hurri crumbes, all books, all energy-formsall everything. While abstraction-building is an inescapable mental processin fact it is the first step in the organization of our knowledge of objects/eventsa serious problem is inherent in the process.At high levels of abstraction we tend to throng together objects that take hold but a few qualities in common, and our abstractionsmay be almost meaningless, without our knowing it. We fall into the habit of using well-known(prenominal) abstractions and fail to realize how expel they are. For example, what do the objects in the pursual abstractions name in common? All atheists, all Western imperialists, all blacks or all whites (and if you think its skin color, think twice), all conservatives, all trees, all French people, all Christians.When we think in such(prenominal) high-ranking abstractions, it is o ften the case that we are communicating nothing meaningful at all. The individual object or event we are naming, of course, has no ca enforce and belongsto no class until we put it in one. Going as furthermost back as Plato, philosophers micturate traditionally defined knowledge as straightforward justified belief.A priori knowledge is knowledge that is justified severally of (or prior to) buzz off. What kinds of knowledge could be justified without any appeal to screw? Certainly, we laughingstock know the faithfulness of definitions and logical rectitudes apart from experience. Hence, definitions and logically infallible truths are examples of a priori knowledge. For example, All unicorns are one-horned creatures is professedly by definition.Similarly, the by-line pleadment is a sure bet Either my universitys football team allow win their next game or they wont. crimson if they tie or the game is canceled, this would fulfill the they wont win part of the prediction. Hence, this statement expresses a logically necessary truth to the highest degree the football team. These two statements are cases of a priori knowledge. Notice that in the particular examples of a priori knowledge I present chosen, they do not give us any real, factual knowledge about the world. Even though the statement about unicorns is straightforward, it does not ramify us whether there are any unicorns in the world.Similarly, the football prediction does not propound us the actual outcome of the game. live of the world is required to know these things. The second kind of knowledge is a posteriori knowledge, or knowledge that is ground on (or posterior to) experience. Similarly, the adjective empirical refers to anything that is ground on experience. all claims based on experience purport to add new information to the subject. Hence, Water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit and Tadpoles become frogs would be examples of a posteriori knowledge. We know the freezing po int of water and the life cycle of tadpoles by experience.Thus far, most philosophers would agree on these points. The difficult question now a inaugurations Is there any a priori knowledge that does give us knowledge about the real world? What would that be like? It would be knowledge expressible in a statement such that (a) its truth is not determined solely by the meaning of its wrong and (b) it does provide information about the way the world is. Furthermore, since it is a priori, it would be knowledge that we could rid through understanding, independently of experience. The question, thereofly, is whether or not basis alone can tell us about the eventual(prenominal) nature of reality. 1.Is it possible to have knowledge at all? 2. Does reason provide us with knowledge of the world independently of experience? 3. Does our knowledge represent reality as it really is? Rationalism claims that reason or the instinct is the primary source of our unsounded knowledge about re ality. Non have sexingists agree that we can use reason to draw results from the information provided by sense experience. However, what distinguishes the positivists is that they claim that reason can give us knowledge apart from experience.For example, the coherentists point out that we can arrive at mathematical truths about circlesor triplicitys without having to measure, experiment with, or experience circular or triangular objects. We do so by constructing rational, deductive proofs that lead to sacrosanctly indubitable conclusions that are always ecumenicly true of the world outdoors our minds (a priori knowledge about the world).Obviously, the rationalists think the second question should be answered affirmatively. Empiricism is the claim that sense experience is the sole source of our knowledge about the world. Empiricists insist that when we start life, the original equipment of our intellect is a tabula rasa, or blank tablet. wholly through experience does that empt y mind become filled with content. Various empiricists give distinguishable explanations of the nature of logical and mathematical truths. They are all agreed, however, that these truths are not already latent in the mind before we discover them and that there is no genuine a priori knowledge about the nature of reality. The empiricists would respond No to the second epistemological question. With respect to question 3, both the rationalists and the empiricists think that our knowledge does represent reality as it really is.Constructivism is used in this intervention to refer to the claim that knowledge is neither already in the mind nor passively received from experience, but that the mind constructs knowledge out of the materials of experience. Immanuel Kant, an 18th-century German philosopher, introduced this view. He was influenced by both the rationalists and the empiricists and attempted to reach a via media between them. While Kant did not agree with the rationalists on everything, he did study we can have a priori knowledge of the world as we experience it.Although Kant did not use this label, I call his position constructivismto capture his classifiable account of knowledge. One troubling consequence of his view was that because the mind imposes its own order on experience, we can never know reality as it is in itself. We can just know reality as it appears to us by and by it has been filtered and processed by our minds.Hence, Kant answers question 3 negatively. Nevertheless, because Kant thought our minds all have the comparable cognitive structure, he thought we are able to arrive at universal and objective knowledge within the boundaries of the benevolent situation. Before reading further, look at the highway picture for an example of a classicexperiment in perception.Did you get the right answer, or were your eyes fooled? One way that sceptics attack knowledge claims is to point to all the ways in which we have been deceived by illusio ns. Our experience with perceptual illusions shows that in the past we have been mistaken about what we thought we knew. These mistakes lead, the skeptic claims, to the conclusion that we can never be plastered about our beliefs, from which it follows that our beliefs are not justified. Another, similar strategy of the skeptic is to point to the possibility that our apprehension of reality could be systematically defected in some way.The story of Ludwig, the brain in the vat who experienced a false virtual reality, would be an example of this strategy. Another strategy is to suppose that there is an inherent f legality in human psychology such that our beliefs never correspond to reality. I call these possible scenarios universal belief falsifiers. The characteristics of a universal belief falsifier are (1) it is a theoretically possible state of affairs, (2) we have no way of knowing if this state of affairs is actual or not, and (3) if this state of affairs is actual, we would n ever be able to distinguish beliefs that are truefrom beliefs that seem to be true but are actually false. financial statementation that the skeptic does not need to call forth that these possibilities are actual.For example, the skeptic does not have to establish that we really are brains in a vat, but merely that this condition is possible. Furthermore, the skeptic need not claim that all our beliefs are false. The skeptics point is simply that we have no fail-safe method for determining when our beliefs are true or false. given over this circumstance, the skeptic provide argue that we cannot distinguish the situation of having evidence that leads to true beliefs from the situation of having the same sort of evidenceplus a universal belief falsifier, which leads to false beliefs. Obviously, the skeptic call backs that nothing is beyond suspect.For any one of our beliefs, we can imagine a set of circumstances in which it would be false. For example, I believe I was born in R ahway, New Jersey. However, my family certificate could be inaccurate. Furthermore, for whatever reasons, my parents may have wished to keep the truth from me. I leave behind never know for sure. I also believe that there is overwhelming evidence that Adolf Hitler committed suicide at the occlude of man War II. However, it could be true (as conspiracytheorists maintain) that his death was faked and that he lived a long life in South America after the war. The theme of the skeptic is that certain(prenominal)ty is necessary for there to be knowledge, and if doubt is possible, because we do not have certainty. We now have the considerations in place that the skeptic uses to make his or her case. there are umteen varieties of skeptical arguments, each one exploiting some possible flaw in either human cognition or the alleged evidence we use to justify our beliefs. Instead of presenting various specific arguments, we can consider a generic skeptical argument. Generic Skeptical Ar gument 1. We can set out reasons for doubting any one of our beliefs. 2. It follows that we can doubt all our beliefs. 3. If we can doubt all our beliefs, then we cannot be certain of any of them. 4. If we do not have certainty about any of our beliefs, then we do not have knowledge. 5. Therefore, we do not have knowledge. Pyrrho of Elis (360270 B. C. ), a philosopher in ancient Greece, inspired a skeptical movement that bore his gain (Pyrrhonian skepticism).Pyrrho was skeptical concerning sense experience. He argued that for experience to be a source of knowledge, our sense datamust agree with reality. still it is impossible to limit outside our experience to see how it compares with the external world. So, we can never know whether our experience is big(p) us accurate information about reality. Furthermore, rational argument cannot give us knowledge either, Pyrrho said, because for every argument musical accompaniment one side of an issue, another argument can be constructed to prove the opposing case.Hence, the two arguments cancel each other out and they are equally ineffective in leading us to the truth. The followers of Pyrrho express that we can make claims solitary(prenominal) about how things appear to us.You can say, The passion appears to me to be sweet but not, The honey is sweet. The best approach, according to these skeptics, was to deflect judgment whenever possible and make no presumptuousnesss at all. They believed that skeptical separation would lead to serenity. Dont worry about what you cannot know, they advised. Some skeptics distilled these arguments blue into two simple theses. First, nothing is self-evident, for any axiom we start with can be doubted. Second, nothing can be proven, for either we will have an infinite regress of reasons that support our previous(prenominal)reasons or we will end up assuming what we are trying to prove.Descartes began his quest for knowledge with the assumption that if he had rational certai nty concerning his beliefs, he ineluctably had knowledge, and if he did not have certainty, he did not have knowledge. The skeptics who came after Descartes agreed with this assumption. However, as we will see in the next section, Descartes argues that there are a number of things of which we can be certain and, hence, we do have knowledge. On the other hand, the skeptics doubt whether Descartes or anyone can achieve such certainty. deficient any grounds for certainty, the skeptics claim we cannot have knowledge about the real world. Thus, the skeptics think that Descartess arguments for skepticism are stronger than his proposed answers. Such a philosopher was David Hume, whom we will encounter later when we examine empir EXAMINING THE STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF SKEPTICISM Positive Evaluation 1. Weeding a garden is not sufficient to make flowers grow, but it does do something valuable. In what way could the skeptics be viewed as providing a philosophical weeding service by undercu tting beliefs that are candidly taken for granted?2. The skeptics are unsettling because they force us to reexamine our most fundamental beliefs. Is it better to live in naive innocence, never questioning anything, or is it some multiplication worthwhile to have your beliefs challenged? disallow Evaluation 1. The skeptics make the following claim Knowledge is impossible. But isnt this claim itself a knowledge claim that they declare is true? Is the skeptic beingness inconsistent? 2. The skeptics use the argument from illusion to show that we cannot verify our senses.But could we ever know that there are illusions or that sometimes our senses are deceivedunless there were occasions when our senses werent deceived? 3. Some skeptics would have us believe that it is possible that all our beliefs are false. But would the human washout have survived if there was never a correspondence between some of our beliefs and the way reality is constituted?We believe that fire burns, water qu enches thirst, vegetables nourish us, and eating sand doesnt. If we didnt have some sort of build in mechanism orienting us toward true beliefs, how could we be as triple-crown as we are in dealing with reality? 4. Is skepticism inhabitable? Try yelling to someone who claims to be a skeptic, Watch outfor that falling tree limb Why is it that a skeptic will always look up? Think of other ways in which skeptics might demonstrate that they do believe they can find out what is true or false about the world. 5. Is Descartess demand for absolute certainty unreasonable?Cant we have justified beliefs based on inferences to the best explanation, probability, or practical certainty? Does certainty have to be either 100 percent or 0 percent? The answer is that our reason tells us that something cannot come from nothing and material objects do not vanish into thin air. We will distrust our senses beforewe will aban befool these beliefs.Hence, our reason seems to have veto power over our sense experience. We often trust our reason even in the face of seemingly solid, experiential evidence. The rationalists raise this trust in reason into a fully fledged opening of knowledge. Rationalism is a very influential theory about the source and nature of knowledge. This position may be summarized in terms of the troika anchor points of rationalism. These three points are responses to the second question of epistemology, Does reason provide us with knowledge of the world independently of experience? drive Is the Primary or Most Superior Source of Knowledge about Reality According to the rationalist, it is through reason that we truly understand the fundamental truths about reality. For example, most rationalists would say the truths in the following lists are some very basic truths about the world that will never change. Although our experience certainly does exemplify most of these beliefs, our experiences always consist of par-ticular, concrete events. Hence, no experi ences of seeing, feeling, hearing, tasting, or touching specific objects can tell us that these statements will always be true for everyfuture event we encounter.The rationalist claims that the following statements represent a priori truths about the world. They are a priori because they can be known apart from experience, yet they tell us what the world is like. LOGICAL TRUTHS A and not-A cannot both be true at the same time (where A represents some proposition or claim). This truth is called the law of noncontradiction. (For example, the statement John is married and John is not married is necessarily false. ) If the statement X is true and the statement If X, then Y is true, then it necessarily follows that the statement Y is true.MATHEMATICAL TRUTHSThe area of a triangle will always be one-half the length of the base times its height. If X is larger than Y and Y is larger than Z, then X is larger than Z. METAPHYSICAL TRUTHS Every event has a cause. An object with contrasted pro perties cannot exist. (No matter how long we search, we will never find a round square. ) ETHICAL PRINCIPLES Some basic moral obligations are not optional. It is virtuously wrong to maliciously torture someone for the fun of it. Sense Experience Is an Unreliable and Inadequate Route to Knowledge Rationalists typically emphasize the fact that sense experience is relative, changing, and often illusory.An object will look one way in artificial light and will look different in sunlight. Our eyes seem to see water on the path on a hot day, but the image is merely an optical illusion. The rationalist claims that we need our reason to sort out what is appearance from what is reality. Although it is unadorned that a rationalist could not get through life without some reliance on sense experience, the rationalist denies that sense experience is the besides source of knowledge about reality. Furthermore, experience can tell us only about particular things in the world.However, it cannot g ive us universal, set in motionational truthsabout reality. Sensory experience can tell me about the properties of this ball, but it cannot tell me about the properties of spheres in general. Experience can tell me that when I faith these two oranges with those two oranges, they add up to four oranges. However, only reason can tell me that two plus two will always equal four and that this result will be true not only for these oranges, or all oranges, but for anything whatsoever. The Fundamental Truths about the World Can Be Known A Priori They Are Either immanent(p) or Self-Evident to Our Minds Innate ideas are ideas that are inborn.They are ideas or principles that the mind already contains prior to experience. The notion of ignorant ideas is commonly found in rationalistic philosophies, but it is rejected by the empiricists. The theory of innate ideas views the mind like a computer that comes from the factory with numerous programs already loaded on its disk, waiting to be a ctivated. Hence, rationalists say that such ideas as the laws of logic, the concept of justness, or the idea of paragon are already contained dense within the mind and only need to be brought to the level of sure awareness. Innate ideas should not be confused with instinct.Instinct is a noncognitive set of mechanical behaviors, such as blinking the eyes when an object approaches them. The theory of innate ideas is one account of how we can have a priori knowledge. Other rationalists believe that if the mind does not already contain these ideas, they are, at least, either self-evident or inbred to the mind and the mind has a natural predisposition to recognize them. For example, Gottfried Leibniz (16461716), a German rationalist, compared the mind to a glut of marble that contains veins or natural splitting points that allow only one sort of shape to be formed within it.Thus, the mind, like the marble, has an innate structure that results in inclinations, dispositions, habits, or natural capacities to think in certain ways. In contrast to this view, John Locke (a British empiricist) said There is nothing in the intellect that was not first in the senses. In response, Leibniz labelled the following rationalistic qualification at the end of Lockes formula, drop for the intellect itself. Obviously, in saying that the mind contains rational ideas or dispositions, the rationalists do not believe a baby is thinking about the theorems of geometry.Instead, they claimthat when a person achieves a certain level of cognitive development, he or she will be capable of realizing the self-evident truth of certain ideas. Leibniz pointed out that there is a variety between the mind containing rational principles and being aware of them. Rationalists give different accounts of how the mind acquired innate ideas in the first place. Socrates and Plato believed that our senses preexisted our current life and received knowledge from a previous form of existence. Theistic rationalists, such as Descartes, tend to believe that God implanted these ideas within us.Others simply claim that these principles or ideas naturally practise rational minds such as ours. THE RATIONALISTS ANSWERS TO THE THREE EPISTEMOLOGICAL QUESTIONS Section 2. 0 contained three questions concerning knowledge (1) Is knowledge possible? (2) Does reason provide us with knowledge of the world independently of experience? and (3) Does our knowledge represent reality as it really is? While differing on the details, all the rationalists give the same answers to these three questions. First, they all believe that knowledge is possible. Generally, we are able to discern that some opinions are better than others.For example, in the discipline of mathematics some answers are true and some are false. We could not know this fact if obtaining knowledge was impossible. Second, the rationalists agree that only through reason can we find an adequate basis for knowledge.For example, in mathemati cs and logic we are able through reason alone to arrive at truths that are suddenly certain and necessarily true. Third, rationalists agree that beliefs that are based on reason do represent reality as it truly is. In the following sections, I examine three classical rationalists to see how they illustrate the three anchor points of rationalism andanswer the three epistemological questions.Socrates answers to the three epistemological questions should be clear. (1) We are able to distinguish true opinions from false ones, so we must know the standards for making this differentiation. (2) These standards could not be derived from experience so they must be unpacked through a rational investigation of the informant of all truththe soul. (3) Since our rational knowledge provides us with information that enables us to deal successfully with the world and our own lives, it must be giving us an accurate picture of reality.However, according to Plato, since thephysical world is constant ly changing, sense perception gives us only relative and temporary information about changing, particular things. Being a typical rationalist, Plato thought that ultimate knowledge must be objective, stable, and universal. Furthermore, he argued that there is a difference between true opinions and knowledge, for our beliefs must be rationally justified to train as knowledge. Finally, Plato believed that the object of knowledge must be something that really exists.Plato and the economic consumption of Reason Do mathematical truths, such as those in the multiplication tables, exist within the mindor do they exist outside the mind? Plato would say both. If mathematical truths exist only in the mind, then why does physical reality conform to these truths? If mathematical truths are only mind-dependent ideas, then why cant we make the truths about triangles be anything we decide them to be? The world of Alices Adventures in Wonderland was created in the mind of Lewis Carroll. He could have made the worlds properties be anything he decided. But obviously, we cant make up such rules for the properties of numbers. We dont create these truths we discover them.Thus, Plato would argue, these truths are objective and independent of our minds. But if they are independent of our minds, then they must refer to something that exists in reality. Although the number seven, for example, has objective properties that we discover, these properties are not physical. We do not learn the truths about numbers by seeing, tasting, hearing, smelling, or touching them. From this concept, Plato concludes that the world of mathematics consists of a set of objective, mindindependent truths and a domain of nonphysical reality that we know only through reason. What about justice?What color is it? How tall is it? How much does it weightlift? Clearly, these questions can apply to physical things, but it is meaningless to describe justice in terms of observable properties. Furthermore, no soc iety is improvely just. Hence, we have never seen an example of perfect justice in human history, only frail, human attempts to approximate it. Because reason can contemplate Justice Itself,* we can evaluate the deficient, limited degrees of justice found in particular societies. concomitant nations come and go and the degree of justice they manifest can rise or fall. But the objects of genuine knowledgesuch as true Justice or true disk shape are eternal and unchangeable standards and objects of knowledge. Plato on globals and the Knowledge of Reality Thus far, Plato has argued that there are some things that we could not know about (Justice, Goodness, Equality) if experience was our only source of knowledge.The soul must have somehow acquired knowledge independently of the senses. But what, exactly, are the objects of this special sort of knowledge? In answering this question, Plato builds on the trenchantion he has made between the here-and-now realm of sense experience and t he motionless realm of rational knowledge.He says that in the world of sense experience we find that particulars fall into a number of stable, universal categories. Without these categories, we could not mention anything or talk about particulars at all. For example, Tom, Andre, Maria, and Lakatria are all distinct individuals, yet we can use the universal term human being to refer to each of them. In spite of their differences, something about them is the same. Corresponding to each common name (such as human, dog, justice) is a Universal that consists of the essential, common properties of anything within that category.Circular objects (coins, rings, wreathes, planetary orbits) all have the Universal of Circularity in common. Particular objects that are beautiful (roses, seashells, persons, sunsets, paintings) all share the Universal of Beauty. Particulars come into being, change, and pass away but Universals reside in an eternal, unchanging world. The rose grows from a bud, bec omes a beautiful flower, and then turns brown and loathsome and fades away. Yet the Universal of Beauty (or Beauty Itself ) remains eternally the same.Plato believes that Universals are more than concepts, they are actually the constituentsof reality. Hence, in answer to the third epistemological question, Plato believes that knowledge of Universals provides us with knowledge of the fundamental features of reality, which are nonphysical, eternal, and unchanging. Plato also refers to these Universals as Forms. The following thought experiment will help you appreciate Platos emphasis on Universals and universal truth. Descartes on the Possibility of Knowledge Although Descartes was certain he could not be deceived about his own existence, the possibility of a Great Deceiver cast a shadow over all his other beliefs.Unless he could find something external to his mind that would guarantee that the table of contents of his mind represented reality, there was little hope for having any k nowledge other than that of his own existence. Descartes sought this guarantee in an all-powerful, good God. Hence, Descartes says, As soon as the opportunity arises I must examine whether there is a God, and, if there is, whether he can be a deceiver. For if I do not know this, it seems that I can never be quite certain about anything else. 12 If Descartes could prove that such a God exists, then he could know that knowledge is possible.But lineup how limited are the materials Descartes has at his disposal for proving Gods existence. He cannot employ an empirical argument based on the nature of the external world, for that is an issue that is still in doubt. So, he must construct a rationalistic argument that reasons only from the contents of his own mind. STOP AND deem Descartes on the Role of Reason In the following passage from meditation III, Descartes says the natural light of reason shows him that (1) something cannot arise from nothing and (2) there must be at least as mu ch reality in the cause as there is in the effect. What examples does he use to illustrate each of these principles? How does he apply these two principles to the existence of his own ideas? The argument that Descartes has given us in the previous passages can be summarized in this way 1. Something cannot be derived from nothing. (In other words, all effects, including ideas, are caused by something. ) 2. There must be at least as much reality in the cause as there is in the effect. 3. I have an idea of God (as an infinite and perfect being). 4. The idea of God in my mind is an effect that was caused by something.5. I am finite and imperfect, and thus I could not be the cause of the idea of an infinite and perfect God. 6. Only an infinite and perfect being could be the cause of such an idea. 7. Therefore, God (an infinite and perfect being) exists. THE THREE ANCHOR POINTS OF EMPIRICISM The Only Source of Genuine Knowledge Is Sense Experience The empiricists compare the mind to a bl ank tablet upon which experience makes its marks. Without experience, they claim, we would lack not only knowledge of the specific features of the world, but also the ability even to con.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Case – Unilever

This meant that from individually one subsidiary was responsible for takings, marketing, sales, and dilutions of their own increases. Milliner felt that by allowing each subsidiary to be accountable for Its own performance would strengthen the boilersuit comp either structure. Managers were able to arrive their own marketing strategies to match their clients and region. By the mid-asses, Milliner fell into issues of cost, global smirch expansion, and product release. With the current decentralization structure, Milliner determined that there was too much duplications, a drop of scale of measurements economies, and oerall too high of be.In 1 996, Milliner set onward with a naked structure strategy based on regional demarcation sector throngs. These groups were introduced in order to drive down operating costs and speed up the process of introducing and developing new products/brands. For ex adenosine monophosphatele, Lever europium (one of these regional business groups ) would consolidate all detergents in Europe, which proved to everyplacecome production costs and speed. With this new structure, new costs of transportation and storehouse would need to be taken into account. However, this new strategy did Identify costs, only also Increased uniform ranging In packaging and advertising for unlived.With this change. Statistics notify Milliner saved an estimated $400 million a year from beneficial this change in the European detergent structure. By 2000, Milliner was in cartridge holder a step behind the competition. Milliner decided to cut brands and develop more centralized or global percentages. The development of the food division and home & personal care division allowed a global brand focus and unification. Not losing the importance of Individual preferences and differences, Milliner added region business as headquarters of a larger area.In the mid-asses, Milliner was attempting to build a unified brand, reduce production costs, and e liminate production lag time by introducing a new structure based on regional business groups. Milliner needed to change from Its previous decentralized business model because It would not keep up with a rapidly ever-changing competitive market environment. Success from competitors such as Nestle and Procter & Gamble allowed Milliner to see their faults. Duplication in manufacturing, lack of scale economies, and overall high costs left Milliner behind its competition.For example, with 17 different European operations it would take four to five long time togged all 17 groups to launch/adopt a new product. This significant lag time left Milliner behind and fight to develop any market share for its product. For these four to five years, competitors were turn over out different variations of these structure was a number of divisions focused on a different but specific category of products. These groups coordinated the activities of subject field subsidiaries to decrease costs and i ncrease the speed of development, production, and implementation.By doing so, individual subsidiary companies allow go of autonomy to execute a unified Milliner strategy. star key aspect was the decrease in production costs. Jeans (2011) helps to expand our realise on the total cost of production that Milliner was initially battling from 17 different groups. Total cost includes setup cost for production, reordering and impact costs, quality costs from lack of quality and product defects, product deficit costs, material costs, and carrying costs Nonage, 2011). All of these costs, multiplied by 17, were hurting the fanny line for Milliner n Europe alone.The new structure identify this and cut manufacturing from ten plants down to one or two. This eliminated the size of the many discussed costs and allowed product sizing and packaging to generate uniform brand recognition. The movement toward this business group model saw big gains, as an estimated $400 million was saved in the Eu ropean detergent operations alone. REFERENCES Jeans, A. (2011). Economic production order quantity and quality. International journal Of production Research, 49(6), 1753-1783. Don. 1080/00207540903555528Although Milliner saw financial success in its business group structure, it chill out lagged behind its main competitors. This structure failed to answer all of Milliners issues by remaining to different organizational and too expansive in its product mix. To answer these issues, Milliner changed its model again toward a global structure. In some ways even with the business group structure, Milliner was still dealing with 17 different subsidiaries in Europe and various amounts in different countries around the world. There was no global division that stress/organized similarity across the lobe.From this, timing issues and brand reputation was uneffective to translate world- wide. Milliner acknowledged this fact by the early asses and develop two global product divisions food and home personal care. These were develop to centralize their company and vision. The second issue was Milliners over extensive brands. With over 1,600 different brands it was difficult and costly to be competitive in any one certain area. They needed to think about quality over quantity in order to focus efforts on developing, manufacturing, and marketing for their to the highest degree profitable brands.

Protection from Harm & Abuse Essay

Throughout this inc draw off I leave behind relate to a case study. I bequeath abide a definition of ill-treat using both sociological and psychological perspectives to grant to our understanding of the causes of contumely. I bequeath define the types, indicators, signs and symptoms of ill-treatment and its impact on families and some anes, identifying factors relevant to the case study, recognising and explaining current legislation making reference to political relation report cards/inquiries and research into disappointments to protect from harm and pace. I will consider the policies and procedures that my naturalize place use and I will identify some statutory and voluntary progressncies and their roles in supporting those equaled by demoralise, relating specific anyy to the sophisticate of sm every(prenominal) fryren. My understanding is maltreat is an unpleasant and harmful treatment of an individual, which washstand cause strong-arm and psychological welf be and may affect future breeding. pace can cause an individual a great deal of hurt and guardianship, as well as physical injury and may affect their ablaze development. Child maltreatment is the abuse and neglect that occurs to peasantren under 18 years of age.see moreidentify reports into serious tribulations to protect individuals from abuse in health and affable guardianshipIt allow ins all types of physical and/or steamy ill-treatment, intimate abuse, neglect, negligence and commercial or separate exploitation, which endings in actual or potential harm to the babes health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, rely or power. Exposure to intimate incitener force-out is also some prison terms complicated as a form of child maltreatment (WHO) A Psychological & antiophthalmic factor Sociological Perspective into the Causes of horror Psychological supposition chargees on the instinctive and psychological qu alities of those who abuse. Believing its the abusers abnormalities that are creditworthy for abuse, abusive parents may pretend been abused in childhood. Psychodynamic theory claims abuse and neglect are a bi-product of maternal deprivation. The mother has suffered abuse herself, displays a neediness of empathy, sensitivity and responses to her child. Mother and child relationships are the focus with the mothers psychological serve-up key.Psychodynamic psychologists say we are born with drives which need satisfying and if not satisfied one can be psychologically stuck at a certain coif Erik paroles mannerspan theory saw that universally pot face fighting through and throughout stages of life, he said people faced conflicts influenced by social relationships, rather than their own psycho-sexual development. At apiece stage of life Erikson believed was a conflict to resolve and a ratio to achieve between the two with a possible positive outcome, creating a virtue or ego s trength allowing competency in all other areas of life or if not resolved a invalidating maladjustment causing disadvantage in the succeeding stage. For example at face 1 Infancy, conflict confidence versus mistrust. A baby learns from attentive financial aid to trust, or through neglect, mistrust in the world. Good resolution of this stage leads to the ego strength of hope about the world. The maladjustment can be both mistrust or insecurity.Erikson believes people whove had problems in life brooknt resolved conflict beforehand and as each stage is programmed the individual cannot relive a stage however work can be preceptore to resolve some of the issues. Hope is both the earliest and the nigh indispensable virtue inherent in the state of being alive. If life has to be sustained hope must remain, even when confidence is wounded, trust impaired Erikson, 1950. (Bingham et al. p78) Sociological theory emphasise social and political conditions as most important reason for ch ild abuse, examining social conditions that create the humour for abuse, not individual factors. Feminist theory sees abuse as longstanding antheral power over women and children, believing men abuse to exercise power.Brownmiller 1975, revealed sexual abuse is more than an action committed by one man against one woman it is a imposing tool of male control over women, an exercise of power with a philosophy to teach women to fear male violence. A sexual invasion of the body by force, an incursion into the private, personal inner space without consent. . . . constitutes a deliberate misdemeanor of emotional, physical and rational integrity and is a hostile, degrading act of violence that deserves the name of rape (Brownmiller, S p377) The five most common social service proletarians will standardizedly see are Physical Abuse, stirred up Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Neglect and Financial Abuse.Physical abuse is causing corporeal harm it may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning , burning or scalding, drowning or smother or excessive discipline or family violence, use of restraints or imprisonment, self-control or misuse of medication, physical aids and adaptations or when the carer feigns ill-health of a child. well-nigh signs and indicators may be physical (several injuries in various stages of healing, repeated injuries or accidents over a period of time, injuries that form a shape like the object used to injure (buckle, hand, iron, teeth, cigarette burns), or death. Behavioural indicators include (negative self-image, deserving punishment, no recall how injuries occurred, offer inconsistent explanations, wary of others and hesitance to go home) Physical abuse can be seen in relation to John Burn (60). He claimed no recollection to a black-eye and urged for his son not to be informed, although it is important not to cast assumptions.Emotional abuse is persistent neglect with severe effects on a childs emotional development. Can involve conveying worthlessness, detested, inadequate or valued just to meet the needs of another. It may involve the guile of age- or develop noeticly-inappropriate expectations on a child or causing children fear or danger, or exploiting or corrupting them. Some level of emotional abuse is persistent in all ill treatment. Both physical (Bed-wetting/soiling without medical cause, prolonged vomiting/diarrhoea, not attained developmental milestones) and behavioural (play models negative behaviour/language, depression, anxiety, withdrawal or aggression) signs may be indicators. John Burn did not want his son to be told any longer of his black-eye as he would be annoyed, Ann reported Peter gets loud and militant at night and appeared apprehensive during social work visit as Peter did not want interference.Sexual abuse includes acts or behaviours where a more powerful person uses another for a sexual purpose. It may involve a stranger, however most sexual abuse is by mortal known and trusted. It incl udes touching, fondling, sexual intercourse, exposure of private parts, or want to be touch for sexual gratification. Also voyeurism, pornographic photographing or thing of children, prostitution or using internet/phone for sexual conversations with children. Indicators can be physical bruises, swelling or bleeding in venereal/vaginal/anal area, torn, stained or bloody underclothing, and STIs. Behavioural cringe/flinching if touched caregiver constantly calling stupid or soundless and can be displayed by child or abuser. Scottish government activity acknowledges not every case of sexual activity in under-16s has child surety concerns, but some may need support in relation to their sexual development and relationships (fpa.org.uk).Ann (17) has learning difficulties and would ingest been under 16 during her first pregnancy. Due to her age and vulnerability Child Protection issues should set about been raised as Peter is almost double Anns age and the Sexual Offences (Sc otland) conduct 2009 states sexual activity between an adult and someone under 16 is a criminal offence Neglect failure to meet basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of health or development, involving failure to provide food, shelter and clothing, or to protect from physical harm/danger, or failure to obtain medical care/treatment, failure to respond to basic emotional needs. Possible physical indicators may be Inappropriately dress for weather, dirty, unkempt, lengths of time un wangled, malnourished, severe nappy rash or persistent skin disorders from lack of care and hygiene.Both children in the case study are omit they have unsatisfactory medical attendance with George (1) suffering nappy rash, worsen skin and missed inoculations since birth. Kyle (2) has missed medicals which couldve addressed his development needs. Financial abuse includes stealing money or property, fraud, pressure in connection with savings, wills, heredi tary pattern or personal financial transactions, embezzlement, pensions or benefits. Possible signs and indicators of this abuse eccentric & unexplained activity in bank accounts, embezzlement or unpaid bills. John Burn may have been financially abused, he has no recollection of missing money and is unable to manage without it, and again does not want his son to know.The impact and effects of the above abuse within the case study is apparent as Peter burn down has traded a dependency on heroin for alcohol which sees him sleep all day, neglecting his role within the family and becomes loudly aggressive at night, this would cause fear in the rest of the household.Protection means recognising concerns and understanding how to share concerns, investigate, respect and the steps required to ensure safety and well-being. Legislation places a variety show of duties and responsibilities on go and organisations. Neglectful indicators seen in both infants within the study, social work may say that the parents breach Section 5 of The Children (Scotland) turn 1995 which states a parent has in relation to his child the responsibility to caution and promote the childs health, development and welfare. (www.scotland.gov.uk) State Parties shall clear all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms ofabuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child. (Article 19 UNCRC) This places responsibility on the social worker and health professionals in case study.Legislation is often formed as a response to public inquiries, highlighting poor practice/abuse that takes place with authority or private providers, government investigations highlight failures and make recommendations to prevent future incidents. Summary of Fatal Accident Inquiry last The Deaths on Erskine Bridge Niamh and Georgia died below Erskine Bridge, 4/10/2009, by suicides. Having wal ked from the Good Shepherd Open whole, stopping at the centre of the Bridge, both girls died on impact with the water. The Inquiry lasted 65 days and it ruled deaths avertable had reasonable precautions been taken Staff members on duty at the Unit been higher. Had Niamh & Georgia run a venture assessment needs assessed and accommodated at a different location within the Unit. Several recommendations were made side by side(p) relating to security, supervision, management, lack of information, risk/psychological assessments missing, better communication system and close recording/time keeping amongst others.Professor S Platt of Health form _or_ system of government Research at University of Edinburgh made three recommendations which are reflected in residential policies now. 1. local anaesthetic authorities to commission guidelines for provide on recognising and mitigating suicide risk in this client group. These guidelines should include the requirement to develop a detai l management protocol. 2. The management protocol should set out the procedures to be implement when a looked after and accommodation child is considered to be at risk of self-harm or suicide e.g. by making suicide threats, by expressing suicidal thoughts or by making preparations for suicide. The protocol should cover inter alia the allotment of duties and responsibilities. 3. Professionals working with looked after and accommodated children, either directly or indirectly should have a sound understanding self-harm and suicide among their clients and of appropriate interventions to mitigate that risk. provision of appropriate facts of life on start of employment and regularly thereafter (as part professional development). (Scotland-judiciary.com)Results of recommendations mean frequent suicide prevention training is mandatory, new traffic light system of reporting absconders/missing people, created in partnership with Strathclyde Police and Local Authorities reflecting ind ividual risk assessments, allowing staff to identify and prevent risks of self harm or suicide and report efficiently should they suspect an absconder is at risk. My workplace lengthy child rampart policy, provides guidelines for all eventualities. In the case of a disclosure the child/ new-made person would be informed that information would be passed on if it colligate to their wellbeing being harmed, allowing them to speak without interruption, listen to-do not coheres, dont make judgement, positive praise for sharing with you and inform them that you will do all in your power to support them. It must therefore be reported to the child protection officer who would deal with the orchis reporting if it were deemed necessary.I could be asked to help assess the child or provide statements to police. In the case of the abuser staff working in safeguarding children has a responsibility to ensure children are adequately protected and a responsibility to share information about indiv iduals where a risk of child abuse is suspected with genial trade Service Managers. Legislation, study circumspection Standards and SSSC Codes of Practice contribute to the protection of children and vulnerable adults. In NCSs for check care accommodation go standard 3.3 looks at care and protection states that workers are aware of child protection policies and procedures. Standard 3.7 ensures protection issues are dealt with using policies and procedures. The SSSC codes of practice contribute to protection code 3.2 states we must pass out the correct processes and procedures to challenge and report dangerous, abusive, discriminatory or consumptive behaviour and practice. code 3.7 states we must support service users/carers to make complaints, pickings complaints seriously, responding to or passing to appropriate person. Code 2.7 states to respect confidential information.For child protection, no Schedule One offence is ever spent in terms of Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974. The Sexual Offences Act 2003 has sections relevant to care workers and committed against service users such as Section 39 Care workers causing or inciting sexual activity, Section 40 Care workers sexual activity in the presence of a person with a mental disorder & Section 41 Care workers causing a person with a mental disorder to watch a sexual act. The support, therapy and treatment of those affected by abuse is an important factor in ensuring wellbeing and safety. Statutory, voluntary and private/independent organisations provide diverse services some of which may overlap. Set up through government relax such as SurvivorScotland, social service and education departments, CAMHS are part of the NHS who support young people and their families with emotional, behavioral and mental health difficulties. A single shared assessment from a multi-agency partnership of professionals not only protect but prevent with early intervention.Many voluntary agencies/charities focus on helping children such as, Barnardos, Womens Aid and the NSPCC (National Society for Prevention of cruelness to Children) who work at national, regional and local level, some of their services include Childline as well as advise lines like the CTAC (Child Trafficking Advice Centre). Private services are profit driven, including home care providers and respite services. Instances of disclosure in various aspects which must be always dealt with professionally no topic how distressing. Workers/carers are offered support in the form of counselling through BACP (The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy) or services such as mind, Re-think or Samaritans wholl listen to, provide support, advice, signposts or referrals to other agencies. There will be instances where workers will support the abused however may find themselves supporting an abuser or someone at risk of abusing.Police, Prison Services, Local Authorities, and Social Services work closely to minimise risk and s upervise offenders in the community. It is crucial not to allow personal feelings/values to conflict with professionalism. The gentle Rights Act, Article 8 Right to privacy, highlights the importance of confidentiality in this line of work, however this right can be limited if it is necessary to protect public safety which Police and Social Work would determine through on-going reviews of risk level each offender poses, reducing the likelihood of pull ahead offending by providing sex offender group-work through social work services. Not all sex offenders are alike, some people have deep regrets and go on to be law-abiding whereas others have deep-rooted psychological problems requiring intensive support to manage behaviour. Workers should bear in mind that a significant proportion of sexual crimes go unreported and there are a number of sex-offenders not known to the authorities and need to take sensible safety precautions if you should suspect such individuals. Workers will h ave supervision with managers where issues are highlighted or access to counselling.BibliographyBINGHAM, E. et al. (2009) HNC in Social Care. For Scotland. Essex Heinemann. BROWNMILLER, S. (1975) Against Our Will Men, Women and Rape. New York Simon and Schuster. CHILD MATTERS (2014) Learn about Child Abuse Online. operational from http//www.childmatters.org.nz/42/learn-about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse Accessed 20th March 2014 COMPANY POLICIES & PROCEDURES. anon (Data Protection Act 1998) SC03-Child Protection MIND (2014) How to Cope as a Carer Online. Available from http//www.mind.org.uk/media/859562/how-to-cope-as-a-carer-2014-.pdf Accessed 3rd May 2014 SCOTTISH PARLIMENT. SCOTTISH political science MINISTERS. (2012) National Care Standards. Online. Available from http//www.nationalcarestandards.org/52.html Accessed 7th March 2014. SCOTTISH PARLIMENT. SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT MINISTERS (2010) National Guidance for Child Protection in Scotland & The Children (Scotland) Act 19 95 & National Guidance Under-age Sexual Activity Online. Available from http//www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/12/09134441/8 http//www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/254432/0078985.pdf http//www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2004/10/20066/44708 Accessed 7th March & 19th May 2014 SCOTLAND JUDICIARY Fatal Accident Inquiry into the Deaths on Erskine Bridge (2010) Online. Available from http//scotland-judiciary.com/10/895/Fatal-Accident-Inquiry-into-the-deaths-on-Erskine-Bridge Accessed 9th May 2014THE OXFORD DICTIONARY (2014) Abuse Online Available from http//www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/abuse Accessed 17th March 2014 LIBERTY (2014) Human Rights Act Myths Online Available from

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Yahoo Reaction Paper

On the 3rd of May, 2012, Daniel Loeb, hicks largest external shareholder, who then controlled 5. % of the comp some(prenominal) with his hedge fund Third point, launched an attack on Yahoo And its saucy C. E. O. , alleging that Scott Thompson had be on his reanimate round his academic qualifications. This was a issuing of a proxy war between Yahoo And Loeb, who being a major stakeholder, wanted his choice Of candidates on the board and saw Thompson as an obstacle. These allegations snowballed into a huge crisis during a trying period for the organization.After rejecting a remunerative takeover bid from Microsoft, steep competition from other internet giants and rear endsheesh level management issues, this situation weakened the company rather. Thompson, in his resume, claimed to train a college stratum in chronicle and computer perception from blockade College near Boston. This claim was published on the companys bio and annual report, a sub judice document whose vali dity and authenticity is confirmed by the CEO- He even so certified these degrees in the Securities and Exchange Commission filings.After receiving Lobes letter stating that Thompson only if had an accounting degree from Stonewall and the college didnt even offer a computer science degree at the time, Yahoo Initiated an investigation. Upon receiving the findings of the investigation, Yahoo En regulationd that Thompson in fact only had an accounting degree and called the mistake an inadvertent reproof. F-judging knowledge on ones resume is something that many people indulge in, in order to make their profiles large-hearted especially in competitive job markets, a place where they business organization harm to other capable candidates.Scott Thompson probably didnt need to lie about this particular qualification as he was in fact more than than capable to lead Yahoo Given his past experiences in engineering firms like Papal and Visa. In my opinion, one of the most important meth ods of honourable reasoning that one must adopt while devising any professional or even personal decision, is the Rawlins Liberalism moral method. As Minnie Moldavia right suggests, one should keep in mind that the decisions you make could eventually regulate your social position in the future.This future could non just wee a positive or negative effect on you, nevertheless also the others who depend on and matter to you. Had Scott Thompson followed this method while making his resume as opposed to just a consequentiality approach, it is very apt(predicate) he wouldnt have found himself in such a controversy. This saga did not just affect him, but also the organization, its shareholders and employees. Since Loeb first revealed Thompson padded resume, Yahoos shares ferocious by around 3%. Since his tenure began, Thompson began to cut costs by laying off or so 14% of the Yahoo Rockford, most of whom were in fact engineers and computer science graduates. Although the Resume-G ate seemed to some a minor mis substantiateing blown out of proportion, several disgruntled Silicon Valley employees questioned how they could cook for an organization where the C. E. O. Claimed to be a computer scientist and actually wasnt. Employee and share-holder morale was at an all-time low, a situation caused by a decision make many years ago, which Thompson rabble thought would never come back to haunt him. Thompson is not alone. There have been other C. E.Cos who have lied about their credentials in the past and some have almost got away with it. Ronald Carmella, C. E. O of Bausch & Lomb, admitted to his mistakes and retained his position. Others like David Edmondson from Radiograms havent been so lucky. In the rear of marketing or branding themselves, people believe they can withdraw aspirations jobs and seem appealing to employers. More often than not, people do not need these little lies to achieve success or the job of their dreams. David Edmondson, for example, had climbed up the company ladder and had become C. E. O. Cause of his ability and skillet, not because of the degree he showcased on his resume. Radiograms may have been too harsh when they utilize their decision, but it was definitely for the long term stability of the company. From the observations so far, understand that the active agents are the board of directors at Yahoo, Scott Thompson and Daniel Loeb. Their decisions will affect the hands-off agents I. E. The shareholders and the employees. So were Yahoo And Radiograms justified in asking their prized possessions to move on? As a decision maker, the questions one must ask, according to graham tire out, are as follows.Is the decision Profitable? On vent Scott Thompson without cause, Yahoo Would have to pay him a huge severance fee and hackneyed grants of up to $million. This would seem a huge compensation and a loss for the organization in the short term, but could definitely seem paid in the near future as the stock pri ces were bound to increase, which they did upon Thompson resignation. Tucker also asks if the decision is legal. The answer to that is also yes. According to the Serbians-Solely Act of 2002, violators seem penalties of 20 years in prison and nines of up to $million if the data submitted to the SEC isnt authentic.Fairness of the decision is another question that Tucker asks. According to the Yahoos code of ethics, all employees are expected to disclose fair, accurate, timely and understandable information in reports and documents filed to the S. E. C. This applies even to directors. It would be unfair to other employees if such share ignored what the top level management was up to. The decision of firing Thompson was also the right decision as this would not just array a strict precedent at Yahoo, but it would also clean the company from a trying tuition.No company would want their leader equivocation about anything let alone something as petty as triad words on their resume. Trust issues creep in and shareholders could question the transparence and openness the company has to offer. Lastly, Tucker asks if the decision taken would ensure advance sustainable development. I personally believe that during this predicament, in spite of manifold changes in management a few years earlier, a best change would benefit Yahoos future growth. A situation like this sets a bad tone at the top and beginning afresh would gather up employee and shareholder morale.

The tremendous growth experienced

In Nigerian tertiary Institutions In the last two decade without a corresponding increase In bed space had resulted In penetrative shortage of rooms in the hostel thereby overstretching the capacity of the existing structures they were originally meant for. Hostel adaptation Is one of the essential factors in all acquire environment. In Nigeria most Institution of higher scholarship be owned by the government as such accommodation cannot be adequately provided to cater for the passing populated Institutions, Inadequacy andInsufficient hostel accommodation has led to overcrowding In rooms and some students living outside campus which In turn chance upon their learning. Built-operate- Transfer (BOOT) emerged as one of the tool In helping to mastermind the situation which becomes a burden to government. BOOT is a type of project delivery that involves different parties whom each contribute in order to see the success of the project. It is a private agreement to puddle and ope rate in a public infrastructure project.The consortia then desexualise their own finance to sponsor the project. The consortium then own, maintains and manage the preparation for an agreed concessionary period and recover their investment through charges or buzzer free. After the concessionary period, the consortia transfer the ownership and operation of the project to the government or relevant authority. This study takes Federal College of education (Technical) Biochip as a show window study.Government Ministries, such as Federal Ministry of Education who govern the affairs of the civilize were consulted. Questionnaire and verbal interview were employed in data collection. After the compend it was found that construction of hostels under BOOT is yielding a decreed impact. The findings should serve as a good baseline for the government in solving the accommodation enigma and overcrowding in the higher institution of learning in Nigeria.Therefore there is need for the govern ment to give more harbour to Public Private Partnership sector so that accommodation problem will be solved. By Amnion The tremendous growth go through in Nigerian tertiary institutions in the last two aced without a corresponding increase in bed space had resulted in great structures they were originally meant for.Hostel accommodation is one of the essential factors in every learning environment. In Nigeria most institution of higher adequately provided to cater for the highly populated institutions, inadequacy and insufficient hostel accommodation has led to overcrowding in rooms and some students living outside campus which in turn affect their learning. Built-operate- Transfer (BOOT) emerged as one of the tool in helping to address the situation which

Monday, February 25, 2019

America Essay

It has been taught in American schools that the contendfare fought in order to stop slavery and that the American South did the proper thing by seceding from the marrow because of its support in slavery. Subsequently, the civic war was a result of the Founding Fathers failure to address the institution of slavery in a republic that proclaimed in its Declaration of emancipation that all men are created equal. Nonetheless, the necessity of the war has been questioned because the four-war to abolish slavery ravaged the country and destroyed nearly half of the American people.Among the countries that in pressure(p) slavery, only America and Haiti freed their slaves by war. The rest were freed peacefully. Hence, it can be think that the South could live with gained its independence without the war. The rising alone of keeping and greenback guards on the constantly escaping slaves would have resulted in the gradual decline for the remove of slaves. The absence of a fugitive sla ve laws in other states that would force the return of the slaves to their owners has added to the decreasing value of the slaves.As such the institution would have been unsustainable regardless of the moral and humanitarian perspectives. On the other hand, the American northwestern would still have achieved its goals without resorting to war. Apparently, the North slaughtered a large number of American young men in the battles against the South. Nonetheless, it is evident that the South posed no military threat to the North. Its aim of preserving the Union was considered as not a compelling reason to continue the war.The North wanted to keep the Union constitutional solely on the basis of economy and fiscal matter. Since the forefront source of tax revenue for the federal government before the Civil war was a tariff on imports, they needed to keep these tariffs in which the federal government accounted its federal budget. The North did not need to way out the bait by Lincoln wh o dispatched southerners to forestall the supplies for Fort Sumter. Hence, its attack on the South could have been prevented had not depended on the Union being intact and the economic advantages it provided them.

Hydration in Sport Essay

Boxing is a sport renowned for its propensity for dehyd symmetryn in fashioning weight. This document is written as an in fermentative aid for underdrawers and coaches and discusses the impact of hydration and vapour on physiology and performance. Although written with boxing in sound judgement it has equal relevance to the wider sporting community. Hydration is the assist by which weewee is ingested and heedless into the em organic structure and the term euhydration synonymous with describing normal body water supply subject area (Wenhold, and Faber 2009). Water is the close abundant substance in the human body and vital to oerall health and wellbeing.The brawninesss comprise over 70% water, as does the brain, crosscurrent plasma is 92% water and even bones make up of over 22% water. Water is essential in maintaining body temperature and blood volume, digestion for absorption/excretion and has a major impact on personal performance. Hydration studies demonstrate posi tive proof that a distinct ratio of protein and carbohydrates promotes cellular rehydration and supports muscle recovery (Kalaman and Lepely 2010).The sports supplement industry is driving current look for in this area of hydration, with (http//thorne-performance.tumblr.com 2009) statingWater is absorbed relatively s miserablely however, this compositors case of hydration is really only extracellular (fluid outside the cell and collectively equates to 20% of the bodys water). Intracellular fluid inside the cell represents 40% of body weight and equates to 70% of the bodys water. True cellular hydration (intracellular) for sports performance is far more complicated than drink ining water or a sports hydration beverage that is simply electrolytes and carbohydrate. Drinking water volition better your overall hydration status, but it will not signifi basetly alter the ratio of intracellular to extracellular fluid.Electrolytes help regulate the distribution of water throughout the b ody and are required for nerve conduction and muscle contraction. The major electrolytes are atomic number 11, potassium, chloride and magnesium. Electrolytes are alienated as the athlete eliminate but there is an adaptive response to this as a packer acclimatises over multiple development sessions to their environment, and increases his or her fitness, there is a mitigate in the amount of water and electrolytes lost during exercise. Adding electrolytes to the fluids a boxer drinks shadow decrease pissing output and help the fluids empty more apace from the stomach to become available for tissue hydration (Douglas et al 2000). Hyperhydration refers to an increase in body fluid above the euhydrated state. This rotter be achieved by ingesting dissipation water, often combined with glycerol which has a sponge like piece and aids water retention. The current scientific consensus however is that hyperhydration does not pull up stakes a centreful physiologic or performance a dvantage over simply remaining well hydrated during exercise (Murray 2007).The contribution of fare to hydration levels is slightlything that is often overlooked, numerous studies reveal that between 20% 25% of essence fluid divine guidance comes from food, (fruit and vegetables having a high water content). Food intake also assists hydration through water binding to the carbohydrate content to form glycogen (1 part carbohydrate 3 parts water). dehydration refers to the process of uncompensated water loss via body of water, sweat, feces, and respiration and is defined as a dynamic loss of body water or transition from euhydration to hypohydration (Armstrong 2007). During most sports, more fluid is lost (via sweating and breathing) than can be replaced (by drinking), and some degree of dehydration is therefore inevitable in sport. Dehydration provokes changes in cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, metabolic, and central nervous lick that increase as dehydration worsens.Dehydrat ion of 1% 2% of body weight begins to compromise physiologic guide and negatively influences performance. Dehydration of 3% of body weight further disturbs physiologic function and increases an athletes risk of developing a calorifacientness nausea (Murray 2007). Taken to the extreme, rapid weight loss when achieved through dehydration can be fatal. Excessive dehydration can harm bodily functions, leash to kidney failure, heat stroke or heart attack, indeed in 1997 common chord young American wrestlers tragically died whilst trying to make their weight (Viscardi,1998).There is increase evidence that even small levels of dehydration can negatively postulate exercise performance. This is reflected in a 2005 scientific consensus statement issued by the American College of Sports medical specialty Dehydration of 2% of body mass can compromise physiological function and impair exercise performance capacity.Measuring Hydration. The better(p) approach involves comparing 2 or more hydration indicators as one measurements lack accuracy. Cheuvront et al 2005 describes the following indicators as requiring minimal technical growth and can be used easily to evaluate hydration status during training Body Weight Difference. The change of body weight represents a straightforward, efficacious assessment of hydration status and is especially appropriate for measuring dehydration that occurs over a period of 1 4 hours, (very simply, body weight lost during activity = sweat loss). water system. If kidney function is normal, urine is concentrated and output is low when the body is dehydrated. When a temporary excess of body water exists, urine is dilute and plentiful. This offers 3 options to evaluate human hydration status using urine 24 Hour piss Volume. Urine volume can be used as an indicator of hydration status.Urine output varies inversely with body hydration status, urine output generally averaging 1 2 litres per day, but can reach 20 litres per day in those consuming large quantities of fluid. The negligible urine output is approximately 500 ml per day, although for dehydrated subjects maintenance in hot weather, minimum daily urine outputs can be less. Physical activity and climate affect urine output. Exercise and heat strain will reduce urine output by 20% 60%, while ice-cold and hypoxia will increase urine output. Urine Specific Gravity. The density (mass per volume) of a urine sample relative to water can be measured using a handheld refractometer. both fluid that is denser than water has a specific gravity greater than 1.000. customary urine specimens normally range from 1.013 1.029 in healthy adults. When serious dehydration or hypohydration exists, urine specific gravity exceeds 1.030 Conversely, excess water outlay show values range from 1.001 1.012.Urine Color. A numbered scale has been unquestionable that includes colors ranging from very pale yellow (1) to brownish green (8). Urine color does not offer the same p recision and accuracy as urine specific gravity but provides a useful evaluate of hydration state during everyday activities. Note that vitamin supplements can drastically alter the illusion of urine via the excretion of excess water soluble vitamins. Thirst. As a physiological response to dehydration, aridity is a reliable indicator of 1% 2% dehydration. Although thirst offers an estimate of mild dehydration, it better serves to remind individuals to drink more fluids as dehydration has already occurred by the time the thirst mechanism functions.http//drdietright.com/my-blog/water-for-weight-loss/Hyponatremia (water intoxication) is a disorder in fluid-electrolyte balance that results in an abnormally low plasma sodium concentration. A sustained decrease in plasma sodium concentration disrupts the dynamics of water exchange crosswise the blood-brain barrier, resulting in a rapid influx of water into the brain. This can dress swelling in the brain, leading to a series of increa singly awful responses, such as confusion, seizure, coma & even death. Hyponatraemia in athletes is often, although not always, caused by high-spirited drinking. During exercise, urine production is decreased, reducing the bodys business leader to excrete excess water, while at the same time sodium losses are increased through sweating. The combined effect makes it lots more likely that the bodys sodium content will be significantly diluted.Hypernatremia is defined by the Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine as The presence of an abnormally high sodium concentration in the blood plasma. It may occur as a result of excessive sweating and inadequate fluid intake. Hypernatremia is generally not caused by an excess of sodium, but rather by a relative famine of free water in the body. For this reason, hypernatremia is often synonymous with the less precise term, dehydration. Re-hydration. After weigh-in, fighters typically try to replace lost body fluids in an attempt to re turn to a normal state of hydration. However, the fighter is incredible to eat and drink sufficiently because of the negative effects of fighting on a full stomach. Also the time between weigh-in and fight is usually insufficient for fluid and electrolyte balance to be fully restored, or for rehydration and substitution of muscle and liver glycogen (ACSM, 1996 Yankanich et al)This is supported by Foster (1995, p.66) who identify that The body takes from 4 48 hours to fully recover from moderate dehydration, meaning there isnt enough time between weigh-in and the match to curb peak performance and health. Effect of Ambient Temperature. The impact of dehydration on performance is less under cooler environmental conditions than under hot conditions and exercise in heat itself, even with no dehydration, impairs performance .(Sawka & Pandolf, 1990).Although the mass of scientific evidence illustrates that dehydration impairs physical performance, exercise in cold weather (Cheuvront et al) showed that dehydration (

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Comparison of High School and College Essay

I could go on and on about how many similarities spirited school and college have, nevertheless Id rather interest you in their contrasts. The three primary(prenominal) differences between these two educations are planning, tests, and rules of attendance. I would personally prefer college everyplace highschool school any day.In high school, homework is moderately ridiculous. Teachers would assign homework every day and not only that, just now they would check it every day as well. If it wasnt perfect we would stun points taken off and we would have to re-do the problems we got wrong. Teachers are also unreasonably balmy in high school too. For tryoutple, the I left my paper at home, can I turn it in next class? remedy is okay in high school. This is because they go away and always will. Teachers know what college is standardised and want to give pupils the benefit of the doubt as over much as they can before they attempt crushed in college. College as you would exp ect, is much harder than high school responsibility wise. In my math class, homework isnt even assigned, let alone checked. It is my own responsibility to do it so that I will do well on tests and quizzes. Nobody is way out to check on you to make sure you are doing what you are mantic to be doing. Honestly, it almost seems that nobody cares either. Of run away teachers care if you fail their class, nevertheless they only care if you tried extremely hard and worked truly hard. nine times out of ten, a student failed due to laziness and irresponsibility to realise assignments into their teachers on time which is when a teacher wont care. If you do happen to get a teacher who assigns homework and checks it, you conk out have it simulatee by the due date. If you shamt, unless you are dying, no excuse is persuasive to a teacher in college. There really is no excuse for belated work in college because it is preparing you for the job world.Tests and quizzes in high school eleg ant much expect the teachers to give students consume guides and so forth. If you sink a test or quiz in high school you can make it up in your imagination time or whenever the teacher says so. If you are an idiot and decide to artifice on a high school level test you world power get a warning, or you might even get a zero. In college the testingstrategy and rules along with it are different. The only course that usually requires a lot from personal experience would be math. all(prenominal) other course basically only has a final exam at the end of the semester and possibly a few quizzes along the way. If you miss these final exams or quizzes they are automatically zeros and you just wasted a lot of money. Another difference in college is that some tests or quizzes are online whereas in high school everything takes place in the classroom. The last major(ip) difference between tests in high school and college is that if you get caught treachery in any way at the collegiate leve l you wont get a zero, or a warning. You will get thrown out of the institution without a refund.This last cool difference could be the deciding factor whether you pass or fail. In high school your teacher is required to take attendance of every student in class every day. If you are late to class you mustiness get a pass and if you dont show up at all it counts as an absence on your report card. sometimes excuses work with some teachers but that usually isnt the case. However, when you reach college you will find that some professors could care less if you come to class late or dont come at all. You wont be marked down as an absence or anything. This is because professors get paid regardless if you show up or not.Ideally, as you would expect, college is much different than high school. I was always the kid who turned assignments in late and every time I got away with it. Sometimes I wouldnt show up to class and made up a stupid excuse for it and nobody questioned me. Now Im in col lege and things are very different for me. I used to hate having to do homework assignments every day and having to do them right knowing they would be checked for correction. I just never realized the importance of be forced to do them and how much it would help me learn the information. So when a professor tells me I dont have to do homework and it wont be checked I listened to him and now I dont know how to do the chapter we are learning in math. Now that Ive realized the importance of doing the homework instead of wait to be asked to do it and checked I just do it so that I wont suffer on the test or quiz due to my own ignorance. Ill be okay in college as long as I remember whats fundamental to me which am getting a job when finally gettingmy engine room degree. You always have to remember whats important to you because if you dont then you will fall behind in life and you dont want to fall behind in anything you do. Its pretty unnecessary and unneeded but either way you won t be successful. High school and college are very different in a couple senses but they are different for a reason. If you dont take service of these reasons then they will take advantage of you. Homework, test and attendance policies are the 3 main differences between high school and college. There is more homework, more tests and stricter attendance policy in high school.

Far from the madding crowd Essay

Roles of women in the Victorian times were very limit comp atomic number 18d to now. They were expect to be house wives, and never anticipate to shoot an horizon or point of view. They were never in control of anything and everything was decided by men. They were usually anticipate to take cargon of everything in the house including look after children. They were very much expected to be women whose life turn around the domestic sphere of the home and family. However, this role was challenged by tabby cat VictoriaIn the novel Far From the Madding Crowd you see Bathsheba and rat breaking the norms expected from women in Victorian times. Sometimes these norm-breaking actions would result in a sever consequence depending on how bad the norm-breaking was. However, sometimes these limits which make up were do by, but no penalization was paid. In chapter 42 Bathsheba stretchs the put in which Fanny and her baby lay. Here you can see an example of a woman crossing the barrier of what was expected from her, but no penalty being paid. She is very insecure as weather to open the coffin or leave it closed.If I could only look in upon you for adept little minute I should know all She finally does open the coffin and is slightly relieved that her tension and suspense has come to an end. It was best to know the worst, and I know it now. She is in a sess of pain, because she now knows that it was the women that troy love. She realises that it is his baby and is shocked when troy weight says to her that he pass on never love her like he loved Fanny. Bathsheba also realises that Troy has slept with Fanny out of marriage, which was a very unacceptable action in Victorian times.She does not wish to pursue or debate with Troy about what he has done, because there are risks of other mountain purpose out and this would bring shame to her self-image. The consequences of Troys actions would mean that people would look at them badly and want nothing to do with them . In a way, Fanny paid the price for a highly perspective sinful act, and through death. legion(predicate) Victorian readers wouldve been shocked at Bathshebas actions when she opens the coffin and also with Troys actions. Bathsheba is obviously troubled and ill otherwise she would never have opened the coffin.You can see that she is demo her true emotions and in Victorian times women never showed their true emotions. Bathshebas actions for opening the coffin would not have been a very severe punishment but would be frowned upon by many Victorians. In chapter 13, the expected roles of women are transgressed when Bathsheba and Liddy play the game of the Bible and key. Did you ever find out, miss, who you are going to marry by means of the Bible and key? Many Victorian women would think it a very foolish game to play, then, not expected from women.This chapter is an example of a woman crossing the barrier of her expected role, but nothing proceeding and therefore no consequenc e. In chapter 11, screw pays a visit to Troy however, she travels a very long outmatch to do this. It was very unusual in Victorian times and straightaway that a woman should travel for miles and miles by foot to visit their loved ones. This wasnt considered very lady-like, and was looked as desperate. It could also have been seen as chasing him around, therefore not being a proper Lady.To make matters worse, Troy dismisses her suddenly which shows a lot of disrespect for Fanny. But Fanny doesnt note this and we can see that she is a weak character. There was a odour in the woman which is not that of the wife, and there was a manner in the man which is rarely a husband. Fannys actions whitethorn also have come down to her social class. Her ways of idea may have also been completely different to that of an upper class. However, the boundaries of what was expected from women was the same throughout social class. But some may have broken these boundaries with no consequence.You c an see now that if the boundaries are interpreted too far the consequences are drastic and sever. However, sometimes they are ignored or they are hidden. Fanny ignored these boundaries and paid the penalty. Bathsheba did step all over the line, but never did ignore the extreme limitations. The women in the novel are defined by how they are seen to everyone else. Some Victorian women would not wear by the rules that were set for them, and some would, either out of fear of what would happen to them if they didnt or they didnt want to feel sinful.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Without Pity

September 4th 2012 RH 200 / Merar REACTION PAPER (JOURNAL) by Raymond Alvarez, Jr. I though the people profiled inWithout Pity A Film About Abilities be a fair cross-section of disabled individuals struggling against the worlds obstacles, to gain operate on of how they will eventually live. One story that really hit radical with me was Charlie. Being born with no legs and arms, Charlie showed great adaptation and intelligence and had much(prenominal) a go-getter attitude.He attends school with the help of a special wheelchair, and divagation from his obvious disability, was very well accepted by everyone who got to know him. Charlie stir me tremendously. His Mom and Dad are also very admirable in how they chose to let Charlie live a great smell, and with so much ratiocination to be a normal kid. I got teary eyed, not because of his disability, provided because of his triumph in life. God has big plans for such a minor guy. Charlie has a great message to deliver to this worl d.The other story, which I could intimately relate too was rag. In his mid 20s, a motorcycle hazard paralyzed him. (I grew up riding motorcycles, and at any moment could exhaust had a life changing accident. ) With obvious and understandable frustration, Josh shares the nervous strain of being a quadriplegic. It took so much courage to share (on camera) the evoke he suffers. He lost the love of his life amidst it all. The Victory was sightedness him overcome to become, and eventually finishing his dream of college.I only pray to gift that much courage to persevere if ever to face a life changing disability. I could only imagine it being much harder experiencing a major disability later in life as Josh did. Charlie never experience life with arms and legs, so in a graceful way, that may have made adjusting to his disability easier. Either way, they were a great testimony to (in my opinion) Gods loving grace, and the tremendous power of the holy (and human) look What a great movie

If I Were the Prime Minister of India Essay

If I were the Prime curate of India, what would I do to make India a super power by 2020? where the mind is without fear and the head is held high Into that heaven of freedom, my father, let my ara awake. Tagore and so many other leading of our country conceive of an India far better than what we have made it today. Easy though it whitethorn be for us to blame it on the corrupt political leaders or the useless government, the truth lies in the fact that they are also one of us. we have elected them. if we point a sense at them, we would be pointing 3 fingers back at ourselves. e swan we cannot change the system.What we dont light up is that we dont use up to change the system, we need to change ourselves. we need to ask ourselves what we have do for the country and get positive answers. India is our country too not unspoilt the politicians and we must contribute towards building a better India, one visualized by Tagore, by Gandhi, by us. A 14 year old, when asked by our p resident APi Abdul Kalam what she would like to be when she grows up, replied, 9 would like to be a citizen of developed India.To most of us, this is developed India as we believe that no more development can be brought about what with the population explosion, the corruption and the poverty. rather of public exposure awareness regarding population control, reporting the acts of corruption or gap literacy to help poverty ridden people secure a minimum stock(a) of living, we choowe to just sit back and criticize about the laws of the land. we have well-read to resign and do nothing and have become fully convinced(p) that India is in a hopeless situation and cant be helped. But that is only because we have chosen to adopt the easy charge rather than the right way.Its high time that we woke up and realize the consequence for our decisions will ultimately harm or benefit us. Mr. S. Saravana, 26 years, diploma holder in electronics and communication engineering living in a small district of Mittur, has interpreted up the responsibility of spreading breeding. He and his teacher Mr. Munirthinam have picked out 40 senior secondayy enlighten students who are above average but need suitable instruct for future courses. Inspired by 87 articles written by Dayanand Saraswati, Saravana has taken unto himself the vow of making 10 doctors and 10 engineers, by giving proper coaching, before dying.In Hyderabad, Ajai Gosh, 37 years, has been a painter for ten years. He had not received any primary education and thus has dog-tired almost his entire income of ten years on childrens education to ensure that they get the basic knowledge and do not fill like him. These men chose to make a difference and however little, they did it. on that point was once a man walking on the beach during minuscule tide when he saw another man who was picking up the millions of shellfish one-by-one and throwing them back into the ocean. He said to the other man, Are you sickish? Its l ow tide. There are millions of shellfish on the shore. You cant possibly

First Steps Film Assignment Essay

The fol mooing eng get onment is based on the select become Human Episode 1 First Steps. You may access the film in the following ways 1. It is available for free on the phosphate buffer solution website at the following address http//video.pbs.org/video/1312522241/2. It is available instantly by means of Netflix (where you may temporarily set up a free placard for a few weeks if you atomic number 18 not a member).Please aim complete sentences to answer the following questions and type your answers on this form. You should submit this assignment to the First Steps dropbox using the Assignments tab by Sun 4/1 at 1159 P.M. Please submit this accommodate as a .doc, .docx, .rtf, or .pdf file. Please do not practice session the .pages extension because PCs ejectnot open it.1. Where is the Afar located?Afar is one of the social club Regional States of Ethiopia and is located in north eastern Africa. It is a diverge of the great rift v everyey (deep cut in earth where geologic forces are ripping Africa apart).2. How did researchers figure out how old the Selam fossil was?Clues to the age of the fossil came from key features in the landscape such as the uninfected bands of volcanic ash that dated 3.4 million old age ago. If the white bands of volcanic ash are 3.4 million years old then the fossil must be younger because it was found above it. Therefore, the fossil was close to 3.3 million years old.3. How did researchers figure out how old the fossil pip-squeak Selam was when she died? How old was she?Researchers looked at Selams teething in order to convalesce out how old she was when she died. They did not look at the baby teeth that were visible in her jaw they looked her adult teeth that were growing wrong the pearl. From that observation researchers know Selam died when she was three years old.4. What are the human-like components of the Lucy skeleton? What are the ape-like components?Lucky had both human-like and ape-like components. From t he cannon down lucy was like piece and from the waist up she was like apes. She walked upright like humans and her pelvis bone resembled those of a human. Lucys greater trochanter was short and human-like. Her skeleton showed evidence of low-down skull capacity similar to apes. 5. What was the ancient environment of the australopithecines like? How does it change by 3-4 million years ago?Researchers have found that Seguda Valley went done a huge transformation. It was once covered entirely of water, up to an cover of approximately 580 meters. The valley was filled with a great lake that was steeper than all of the great lakes. The entire African continent apply to be a lot wetter than it is present day. Long ago, before even Selam and Lucys existence Africa was a wet tropical environment covered with rain forest. Eventually Africa began to dry out and the rain forests shrank. During Selams existence, 3-4 million years ago, Africa was a mosaic of contrastive environments. Re searchers know that from the fossils that live there, they tell a story of a vanished landscape. Fossils of creatures like a pig and hippopotamus. Today it is a vast expanse of volcanic rock and burning desert.6. What are some of the different hypotheses presented in the film for why bipedalism emerged?One supposition is that the mammals stood up to be able to see over tall grass. Second theory is that they stood up to be able to pick fruit off low branches of trees. (The way chimpanzees do today.) Third theory is that they stood up to cool to a greater extent efficiently. Not as much sun beating on the body. * near compelling hypothesis is that it saved us energy.7. What is the molecular clock and how is it used to determine when two species last shared a common ascendent?It is a simple root that the rate of change in deoxyribonucleic acid sequences is more or less constant over time a way of determining if and when two species shared a common ancestor. By counting the diffe rences in the genetic code between chimps and humans researchers can calculate how long they have been evolving away from each-other. (5-7 years ago humans and apes shared a common ancestor.)8. What is the clue that the Toumai fossil (Sahelanthropus tchadensis) is bipedal?The decisive clue that the Toumai fossil is bipedal is how the skull connects to the spine. Researcher Michele could confer that by the mannikin of Toumais skull. If the skull is placed on a neck of an ape that walks on all fours its eyes point down ward (not correct). If the skull is placed on an upright spine of a biped its eyes point straight ahead for Michele this proved that Toumai walked upright.9. How are the first stone tools identifiable as tools? Who is currently thought to be the first stone tool manufacturer?The first stone tools were broken in a very concomitant way there is a method behind how the rocks were broken in order to make it into a tool. serviceman habilis (1.6-2.5 million years ago) ar e thought to be the first stone tool makers.10. What is Rick Potts idea about the role of climate in hominid adaptation? How is it different from traditional ideas?Rick Potts observations let him to the new idea, rapid change as a catalyst for our evolution.11. What was going on with the African climate when Homo habilis evolved?Africa had numerous climate changed from wet to dry, wet to dry, wet to dry all within approximately a thousand years.