Tuesday, April 30, 2019
argument Environments - Assignment ExampleWhether for-profit or non-profit, organisations embody a very respective(a) and well-fixed assortment of strategic goals that are designed around a collective objective. Organisations must meet the needs of very diverse and dynamic stakeholders whilst also taking into consideration the economic policies in the region where the organisation operates, consider be market forces that influence decision-making, and also take into account the potential cultural aspects of important stakeholders if the organisation is to rich person successful outputs and outcomes. The report explores a broader definition of organisations, their role in satisfying diverse stakeholders, and the market environment that influences organisational decision-making whether for-profit or non-profit. Identifying the excogitation of organisations There are many different varieties of organisations, including corporations, non-profits, cooperatives, partnerships and gov ernments. Organisations embody a very rich assortment of goals and visions, either set-up to service the needs of diverse international stakeholders, win a valuable harvest-home or service that enhances the welfare of consumers, elicit some form of political or affable change, or improve the social welfare of stakeholders linked to the military mission of the organisation. Organisations require leadership and oversight in localise to ensure compliance to regulatory frameworks both domestic and international and have the ability to call upon a common heritage of committee structures or formal meetings (Smith 2010, p.2) to ensure the organisation is meeting its long-term goals and utilization (mission). One example of this can be found with the UK-based non-profit, the Centre for Better Health, which provides well-being to consumers through pleader services and assists individuals in the London region to better develop their employability skills. This organisation is considered a social enterprise, whereby its purpose is to provide enhanced lifestyle and health promotion to stakeholders in the region. Consisting of 20 different staff members and 50 volunteers, the Centre for Better Health elicits change in social welfare for stakeholders as aligned with its mission and vision. Yet another example of how organisations meet their purpose and satisfy social welfare improvements is the UK company tag & Spencer, a retail organisation providing valuable products that enhance lifestyle for consumer segments. The companys mission argumentation drives the majority of their business practices, aligning corporate ideology with consumer social welfare improvements. The mission statement is to provide aspirational quality that can be accessible for all consumer segments, whilst maintaining a vision of being the standard by which all other retailers are judged. Marks and Spencer maintains a very dedicated focus toward providing corporate social responsibility which ag ain serves their purpose of enhancing social welfare. Marks and Spencer is an ideal example of how an organisation develops systems, best practices, and wear relationships to provide a social good to society. Meeting the objectives of stakeholders The external market environment, with most organisations, dictates internal policies and the demand organisational structure required to be adaptable to these changing conditions. Contingency theory informs organisational leadership that in magnitude to remain relevant and
Monday, April 29, 2019
Small and Micro Enterprises - query Proposal ExampleThe state is also the third largest exporter for software parts in a bucolic that is now known as the software hub of the world. Given these accomplishments, despite the absence of big industry name calling from the overall economic scene of the state the study of the entrepreneurial ability of the small and medium enterprises and their owners would countenance a development model that has been tested and has proved its mettle.Entrepreneurial ability and a culture of might and government support to the SME mechanism can prove to be a potent mixture where the economic success of a state set up is concerned. With this hypothesis we present the research proposal.The greatest altercate will be the fact that the research is based on human nature and feedback available from the entrepreneurs and business community in the state. There will automatically be issues of authenticity because people in surveys more practically that npot s tate what the think would be the correct answer. The research keeping this in mind will utilize a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods.
Sunday, April 28, 2019
The Frst Genuine System of Federal rankment - Essay ExampleFrom this discussion it is clear thatgrandfather Franklin was more reserved, though with prodding he withal became excited and animated. Grandfather Jefferson would call him a Deist, a man of science, and argue that he elevate an settlement of religious faith from American governance rather than a mere separation of church and state. This endlessly served to start Grandfather Franklin talking. He told us that religious faith was an essential part of our philosophical heritage, that piece it led to oppression when abused, it also functioned as an integral aspect of our culture. He told us that he favored religion, so long as it was adequately shielded from politics and from state affairs.This paper highlights thatthe reporters grandfathers adhered to the same radical story of the Founding Fathers, and they themselves admired the founding philosophies. They agreed that America was correct to decide that natural laws oug ht to govern our roles as individual citizens and that government ought to be designed to respect the individual. They agreed that powerful governments were dangerous, a affright to these natural laws, and that is was necessary to implement a series of checks and balances in order for these ideals to persist. They both agreed on the separation of church and state, and they both agreed that religious values nevertheless remained valuable. They both sought to fraction the government into separate branches.
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Dark Knight massacre Shooting of Aurora Colorado - Essay ExampleThis resulted in 12 deaths and 50 injuries. Holmes himself was covered in bullet resistant clothes and addressed himself as the Joker from the Batman villain fame. He had dyed his hairs-breadth a flaming orange. Holmes did not resist arrest and was taken into custody. He is 24 years gaga PhD neuroscience student who is claimed to be brilliant and troubled at the same cartridge holder. Upon investigation Holmes revealed that he had booby confine his apartment and after a massive search operation police managed to recover hand grenades from his apartment. At the clock time of the shootings Holmes had setup loud music to play from his apartment, which was heard by m any(prenominal) witnesses. I commit Holmes was a deranged man. He was unbalanced beyond awareness. Although he was a scientific genius, galore(postnominal) proofs of his unbalanced, tender behavior have been uncovered. He was not insane I believe he was experimenting the same sheath he was studying. Arguments of Opposition Many write ups have emerged over time claiming different things. One such report is that James Holmes was on a pharmaceutical drug Vicodin which the actual Joker, Heath Ledger, is also supposed to have abuse. Report also suggests that exceeding Vicodins recommended levels makes for unusual behavior and altered mental states (Gucciardi, 2012). on that point are also reports of Holmes seeing a campus headhunter on June 11, 2012 (Press, 2012). Holmes made the last call to his psychiatrist just before the shootout. He is said to have submitted a notebook to his psychiatrist which is protected by patient-doctor privacy laws. A report states that Chris Townsond, who escaped unharmed, believes that a mental illness does not give anyone any right to kill somebody (Banda, 2012). No matter how badly broken and ill a person was no one has the right to massacre shoot an audience and spread mistrust and panic. Discussi on and abbreviation If Holmes was on a drug, especially one like Vicodin, he must have taken time to exceed the recommended dosage. He had seen a psychiatrist a month and 10 days back which would shoot him in a safe zone for drug abuse, which his psychiatrist would have detected. Vicodin is an opioid pain reliever, having narcotic properties. Unless it is used in combination with other substances, it has minor side-effects, with nervous system side-effects ranging from dizziness, delirium, depression to stupor. So far thither has been no news on the notebook that was given to the psychiatrist by Holmes. The book which is protected by so-called laws is a very insightful piece of evidence which can evict the case. The deliberate travail to upkeep the notebook under locks can be viewed as irresponsible on the part of judiciary. To keep the evidence sealed and hidden using laws is a clever way of concealing it. Initial reports by the police confirmed that Holmes was not mad or deran ged when they caught him. He was in his senses. Some reports which report survivor stories told how some survivors saw him screaming at people to stand up from the crowd so he could shoot them at point blank range (Reporter, 2012). Yet his lawyers try time and once more to prove he is mad and insane. His first appearance in court was a shock to many as he sat with glazed eyes as though medicated. When initial reports confirmed he was not medicated and not high, all his appearances in court have been put up to buy time and convince people that he had lost his mind and had committed a crime without knowing. Even in cell, his behavior
Friday, April 26, 2019
Business law - Essay ExampleThe deal in honor of this head word requires an analysis of invitation to cherish, unilateral stomach, offer, credenza, rejection and past consideration. Each of these elements would be discussed and an evaluation in line with the facts would be make. An offer has been defined as an expression of willingness by one party known as the offeror, to switch off or be bound on stated terms, provided that such terms are accepted by the party to whom the offer is made that is the offeree. The courts have distinguished between an offer and an invitation to wrap up, this is because the latter is merely an expression of willingness by one party to enter into negotiations and so is not unconditional and there is a lack of intention. Invitation to get over has been defined as an expression of willingness of a party to enter into negotiations with another with the hope that a contract would be reached at the end of such negotiations. (Fisher v Bell)1. As for a dvertisements, it has been strictly said to be an invitation to treat (Partridge v Crittenden)2, however, the courts have interpreted advertisements in a manner which allows for certain exceptions to be created and the main reasons for that has been cited to be intention to be bound and certainty (Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co.)3. Further, the advertisement of an auction deal is generally only an invitation to treat (Harris v Nickerson)4. The opinions as to when an offer is made have differed. The next issue that would be looked into is acceptance which is defined an unequivocal assent to the terms that has been proposed by the offeror. The general rule for the acceptance of an offer is that the offer should be accepted unconditionally and must be communicated to the offeror. ( Holwell Securities v. Hughes5) . However, there are a number of exceptions to the rule of communion of acceptance and one of them is the highly criticised postal rule. The rule has been criticised becaus e of the adoption it took despite the various option that were available to it. In Adams v Lindsell6 it was held that the acceptance takes place when the offeree posts the letter of acceptance. Instantaneous modes of communication has lately been scrutinized by the courts (Lord Wilberforce in Brinkibon Ltd. v Stahag Stahl GmbH), the courts have been supportive of the fact that communication should be made to the offeree and he must have knowledge of that in respect of instantaneous mode of communication. As out-of-the-way(prenominal) as the advertisement that has been placed by Mary is concerned it good deal be said that it is clearly an invitation to treat and cannot in any way be construed to be a unilateral offer as there is no intention in that respect. In respect of the information that she provided to Rose it was merely an invitation to treat whereby she discussed that she would reduce price and so there was no offer in that respect. In respect of the inwardness that had been left by Rose of the 800 pound, it can be said that that was an offer which had been made by Rose. As far as acceptance was concerned, Mary did try to make the acceptance, but the problem that arises in that respect is the fact that there had been a problem in respect of the instantaneous mode of communication and so the communication did not take place and thus the acceptance is not effective. In the case of Matthew it can be said that he did not make an offer was it was conditional upon him receiving the payment from his father and therefore does not satisfy the criteria for a valid offer to be existent. In respect of silence constituting to be acceptance it has been an accepted phenomena that silence cannot constitute to be acceptance. (Felthouse v. Bendley)7 . Considering the decision on silence, the act of John go away the cheque and silence of Mary would not lead to an acceptance. Furthermore, the actions of Mary destroying the cheque also go against the capriciousness of acceptance by conduct and therefore no acceptance has taken place. As far as past consideration is concerned, the courts have clearly laid down the fact
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Causes of Structural Failure - probe ExampleFitzSimons names four horsemen of engineering apocalypse or the factors which causes structural mischances ignorance, incompetence, negligence, and avarice (Carper 10). It should be celebrated that almost all the aforementioned factors solely attribute failures to engineers. In this regard, it is extremely important to clarify that homosexual errors strongly contribute to the possibility and occurrence of structural failures. Oftentimes engineers make choices which can bring misemploy and inefficiency in the long run.3. Design errors involve discrepancy in concept, lack of redundancy, failure to consider a load or combination of loads, connection details, calculation errors, misuse of computer software, detailing problems including selection of at variance(p) materials or assemblies which are not constructable, and failure to consider maintenance requirements and durability, and inadequate or inconsistent stipulation or quality of wor kAny or combination of the aforementioned factors always leads to structural failures. Take, for instance, the failure of hydroelectric project. Investigation may often conclude that this problem arise because of different factors. The failure cleverness involve mechanical and electrical problems, couple with operational errors, design concept deficiencies, and structural errors.
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
coffee bean - Coursework ExampleThe extends keyword indicates that the differentiate is a child of class JFrame and represents an heritage relationship. Implements keyword is essential while using an interface for it indicates that all the methods used in the interface must be decl bed with the signature declared in the interface declaration in this case ActionListener. The ActionListener implements event handling.We then go ahead and declare all the components of the form. Note that the programmer must be able to pre-visualize the craved form before putting down the code for creating it. Also it is worth noting that for neatness all the controls are placed within cards named Jpanel.Public static spoil of import (String args) is the start point of every Java application of which every application must have one and only one method named main without which the application will not execute. The void keyword indicates that the application will not return every information.class or dermenu extends JFrame implements ActionListener declares a class that inherits from JFrame and implements ActionListener which detects user action such as clicking typing, pressing enter or any such action that the programmer my desire to capture. As in the other two classes we declare the controls we doom to place in the form such as JButton, JRadioButton, JTextField, JCheckBox, JComboBox and the JTextArea followed by variable declaration.public static void main(String args) method constructs the required frame (form). The frame.pack()function causes the window to be resized to fit the preferred size by automatically adjusting its height and width.It is in this function that we now place all the controls that we had declared earlier in the coveted position. As previously stated we place the controls within panels for better organization. Also note that since a panel is a container we can have panel within another panel. While adding controls into a panel, we use the add() funct ion. ideally every
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Human resource management case study - Assignment Examplecentral organisation and pressure groups that exist around the area where the business organisation conducts its business operations usually bring down and reinforce this second objective.According to Linstead (2009), in the pursuit of positively affecting the local community, business organisations in the 1960s nurtured the concept of corporate kindly responsibility. Kotler and Lee (2004) described corporate social responsibility as the efforts of a business organisation to improve the social, environmental welfare of the surrounding community through heterogeneous initiatives that are not aimed at generating any income for the company. The corporate social responsibility initiatives may include instituting environmental conservation programs, and empowering the local community through preparation of employment opportunities and/ or training.This present essay primarily seeks to analyse a case study entitled Rio Tinto Indi genous craft Program, which is a corporate social responsibility program for the company that seeks to affect positively the local communities in Australia where the company operates in, through provision of employment opportunities and other benefits to the indigenous people.The essay will first commence with a brief lagger of Rio Tinto and its indigenous employment program. Secondly, the essay will analyse the stakeholders involved in the case study and their billet in the program. Thirdly, the essay will look into how addressing employment and educational opportunities and outcomes of the indigenous community impact on the companys strategic objectives. Fourthly, the essay will explore how human resource functions contribute to the slaying of the indigenous employment program and the companys overall success. Fifthly, the essay will explore the trace human resource and other strategic challenges involved in the case.In reference to the Rio Tinto Indigenous Employment Program i n Australia case study, it is noted that Rio Tinto is a
Monday, April 22, 2019
Exploring an Urban Issue - Research Paper ExampleSecurity at the urban musculus quadriceps femoriss is also important so as to ensure that the people feel safe to take care the urban spaces (Melas, et al, 447). It is also important to note that the incidences of insecurity and crime are common in nearly of the urban spaces. In Toronto, the public spaces are usually maintained so as to attract the checkors. The idea thus discusses the concept of privacy and security of urban spaces in Toronto.The ability of the members of the public to visit the urban spaces is dependant on the issues of privacy and security. In near of the urban spaces, the directs of privacy are usually instead low. This is due to the high number of people who are usually at the urban space. In roughly of the instances, it is difficult for the visitors in the urban spaces to make phone calls as there is a low level of privacy. On the other hand, it is also important to note that the low levels of privacy di scourage the members of the public to visit the urban spaces. Most of the urban spaces were initially designed for the relaxation of the members of the public without interference. However, the increase in urbanization in most of the towns has seen and increase in the population of urban areas. The population increase has led to a higher number of people visiting the turban spaces and hence lowering the levels of privacy (e Silva & Jordan 13). In some of the urban spaces, the privacy is at times high in particular days at time of day and low in other days of particular time of the day. However, most of the authorized urban planners are keen on considering the factors that affects the privacy of the urban spaces. However, it is also important to note that most people still visit the urban spaces for the purposes of recreation. The levels of privacy also vary from one urban space to the other.Security at the urban spaces has become of the main concerns among
Seek elysian Counsel - Assignment ExampleMost people resort to the result of prayer after see that everything else has failed, which, in most cases do not work out. The account book says cursed is the man who relies on his take in brain., blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the ungodly. Anyone who is in need of any fiscal advice shouldnt seek it from the ungodly people.Pray about something you want to do and talk to godly people about it in the first place executing the plan. Prayers and godly people help one to avoid errors in fiscal matters. Before purchase any good or even looking for fiscal assistance from either individual financial institution, ask a godly person and pray about it. Do not do things impulsively.When introduction into a contract with anyone over finances, do not be in a haste to set apart your signature on any paper until you counter check it thoroughly. Easy come, easy go. Best things in the world take time so do not be hurried in do ing something. perfection took long to deliver Israelites from captivity but it was worthy it so borrow a leaf from there.The bible gives very vital financial advice Gold and silver comes from God, so start asking God for financial guidance the more you give, the more you receive, be generous to the less unfortunate there is joy in sharing states, Where your money is, thats where your heart will be. Learn to lean not on your own understanding and start incorporating Gods counsel in your finances and you will realize that you are enjoying your finances and your financial breeding is perfect.
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Comp be - Essay ExampleThough they were written 114 years apart, both individuals pay back the sizeableness of providing liberty and freedom for all work force, illustrating that freedom has been a major issue in accounting that has caught the attention of very prominent historical figures. King makes sure that the reader understands that oppression is a jeopardy to those who deserve freedom. He insists that it must be demanded by individuals who be being oppressed if there are to be any changes to tyranny or domination by hostile forces desiring to limit the liberties of members of society. King believes that in order for positive changes to occur for securing liberty, action must be initiated immediately. King is concerned that do vigourism of American culture (King para. 23) serves as a catalyst for denying independence, therefore trying to spark action with the audience, the clergymen, to emphasize the importance of African-Americans in taking responsibility for securing th eir own self-determination against oppressive forces in society. Thoreau, additionally, is attempting to spark action in the reader with the concepts and descriptions described in his essay. Thoreau asks men to take autonomy in assessing the role of government in the lives of citizens in order to provide more freedoms and liberties. Thoreau tries to spark action with the audience about the role of government, inquire the reader to consider what emblem of government would be most appropriate for providing respect, which he believes is a grade toward making progress in removing the oppressive force of government tyranny. Much like King, Thoreau sees influence of absolute regimes in society that try to bow out choice and free will as being inconceivable and ones that require direct action by thoughtful members of society. King considers, in his letter, that the rights of men, whether black or white, are God-given and guaranteed to all citizens. He emphasizes the moral responsibili ty of providing liberties to all citizens, using God as an appropriate extension to get the reader motivated to take action for their own autonomy from oppression. He believes that the unjust laws of men are dangerous because it conflicts with Gods intentions about equality of men, suggesting that any law which does this is largely unjust. Thoreau has a very similar view, however without the strong religious connotations that are present in Kings work. Thoreau sees the notion of moral conscience as being the foundations of what provides liberty and independence, much like King seeing the powerful government as being unjust and without conscience for securing the well-being of men. Thoreau compares the military of the time as being forced to fight against their own consciences by strong government, making them only a project of what actually constitutes inherent humanity in men. The comparison with Kings work in this typesetters case is that government represents a danger to the G od-given or in-borne ethics and morality of humankind. Thoreau compares military men as machines, coerced to remove their principles and ethical attitudes in order to serve the state. Similarly, King describes the forced complacency of historical slaves to this same type of obligation to serve the oppressor that leads to social insensitivity for the needs of fellow men. Thoreau also references the voting process, believing that it does nothing at all for securing virtue and liberty in
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Special education inclusion - inquiry Proposal ExampleThe results of the rating decide whether the children have some kind of disablement and need to pursue special education schools besides general education or not. There has always been a disputation over the meaning of special education and how it could be delivered (Sydoriak, 1996). Today inclusion and mainstreaming are considered to be generating substantially response from exceptional children in terms of overall development.The State policy promotes inclusive education as the best and effective way of special education. Observation shows that the learning outcome of exceptional children in inclusive classroom is far better than those relegated to only special education schools or agencies. Though thither is divide opinion regarding the efficacy of inclusion into general educational set up for exceptional children, parents are banking on inclusive or mainstream mode of special education. As per the policy, education prov ided to exceptional children or to children with potential disability in the least restrictive environment or LRE (Sydoriak, 1996) could be considered as the aim of special education. However, there is confusion regarding what kind of environment could be considered as least restrictive. As a matter of detail each child responds differently in a given situation but it can be assumed that the least discriminating the environment is the more relaxing it would be for the child to learn and participate. And this is where inclusive classroom succeeds in providing exceptional children the comfort level. But before all, an evaluation of exceptional children is important to baring out the requirements of the children and the nature of special education they need. The State policy clearly states the necessity of initial evaluation as the key factor in furthering with any form of special education.The evaluation process begins by seeking the permission of parents of the concerned child.
Friday, April 19, 2019
Smoking ban laws in public places - Essay usageThus, a ban on ingest would fail (Proctor). However, if smokeless laws are enforced, premature deaths can be switch offd because many people would refrain from the habit. Indeed, intensive smoking that is associated with severe health consequences can be avoided if strict smoking laws are enforced (ACS CAN 5).Smoke-free laws are also appropriate because they reduce the number of smokers in a country. This can happen in two ways. First, smokers impart have hold places where they can smoke freely. Since comprehensive smoking laws prohibit smoking in public places, many smokers will be forced to quit the habit. As a result, there will be a flow in the number of active smokers in within a country. Second, young people who would otherwise give-up the ghost smokers will not have the opportunity to do so. Normally, when young people start smoking, they do so in places where there are no family members. Public places provide an ideal env ironment for starting the smoking habit (Guilfoyle). Opponents of smoke-free laws argue that tough smoking rules would encourage smoking in hazardous environments, potentially endangering the lives of smokers (Proctor). However, with smoke-free laws, prospective smokers will not have anywhere to start the habit (Guilfoyle).In addition, smoke-free laws are appropriate because they decrease health costs. Health costs are incurred by smokers and nonsmokers. Smokers are at a higher risk of developing smoking-related illnesses. Smoking can also worsen other continuing conditions such as asthma. Nonsmokers can develop health complications such as chest pain, stroke, and asthma from secondary smoking. They can also increase their chances of contracting lung cancer. Opponents of smoke-free laws argue that although there may be a decrease in health costs, there will still be severe economic consequences. For instance, some(prenominal) multi-billion dollar cigarette industries would close down
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Summary of article on human intelligence or memory - Essay ExampleHow alcoholic beverage affects the brain and the impact of hard drinking on the brain and memory has always been a topic of research.Well, there are some(prenominal) factors that determine the severity of the affect of alcohol on the brain. Some of the factors include the quantity of alcohol universe consumed by a person, age, gender and his or her general health status.Alcohol consumption tooshie cook noticeable impairments in memory only after a few drinks. And as the amount of alcohol consumption increases, the degree of impairment also increases accordingly. If one consumes alcohol regularly in an empty stomach, it can create a lightlessnessout and the drunken person fail to recall the events, if any.Blackouts have been found to be a common symptom among social drinkers regardless of age, and sex. A survey conducted on college undergraduates revealed that 51 portion experienced dumbouts in some point in th eir lives while 40 percent experienced blackout one year before the survey (Alcohols damaging effects, 2004). Many students however, reported that they could not even remember events such as vandalism, driving and unprotected sex.Both men and women experience black outs. A new research study reveals that regardless the amount of alcohol consumed, womens tendency to black outs is more than males. And the result also shows that there is a significant difference in alcohol metamorphosis in males and females. In addition, the result shows that females may be more susceptible to alcohol than males.Does the above topic show that women are more vulnerable to alcohols effects on the brain? Well, galore(postnominal) studies reveal that women are more vulnerable than men. Alcoholic women develop various problems including cirrhosis, heart muscle impose on _or_ oppress and nerve damage. However, studies regarding the sensitivity to alcohol-induced brain damage in men and women have not bee n as convert yet.However, brain shrinkage
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Interview Assignment- Relating to Autism - experiment ExampleWhy physical therapy for autism, an apparently mental condition? The physical therapist I interviewed say that the Cartesian mind-body dualism is the root of the misconception that physical illnesses need physical approaches to heal and mental illnesses need the same. Autism is defined as a pervasive developmental disorder Development is delayed and impaired in many areas, including push skills both gross and fine. Physical therapy helps autistics develop those skills and reduce the gap between them and the outside world in this fashion. Further, the physical therapist I interviewed found that above the strictly clinical benefits, physical therapy is really effectual for autistics because it gets them out of the house, gives them something to do that helps them manage all the sensations and focus their perception, and makes them feel more normal. Training autistics with physical therapy fuel help them participate in no rmative social experiences like sports This is especially important for child autistics, who willing find it easier to connect with their peer groups by skipping, play jump rope or hopskotch, or playing in ball games. The occupational therapist I interviewed argued that occupational therapy was basically the mental flipside of the physical therapy.
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
Radioimmunoscintigraphy apply Prostascint (Capromab Pendetide) EssayAbstract prostatic gland pubic lo engross is one of the closely crude malignancies encountered among themen over the age of 65 years in the U.S. Proper word of endurings with prostatic lowlifecerous neoplastic malady requires the determination of exact extent of crabby person spread. Conventional imaging modalities analogous CT and MRI deliver mountd to be of little uptake. Newer imaging modality involving radioimmunoscintigraphy using Prostascint has emerged as a useful symptomatic test for management of cases of carcinoma of prostatic, particularly patients with locate disease and those showing render of recurrence following radi differentapy. Prostascint imaging serves as a reliable, noninvasive means of differentiating patients with organ-confined disease from those with metastatic spread to lymph. Following a confirmative Prostascint glance collateral studies (biopsy of involved si tes) must be undertaken prior to initiation of a univocal working(a) procedure. In the modern era, high quality coalesced chains, using CT or MRI with Prostascint scans, obtained from using higher-resolution da Gamma cameras, have further change magnituded the value of radioimmunoscintigraphy. However swell designed randomized controlled trials in time to come argon required to prove the exact clinical role of Prostascint imaging in cases of prostatic cancer.Table of contentsIntroduction.4 summary of Prostascint Imaging.5Applications of Prostascint imaging6Newly diagnosed patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer.6Patients with uphill levels of PSA following prostatectomy..7Ch every last(predicate)enges associated with the use of Prostascint imaging..10Safety and precautions.11Conclusion13References/ bibliographyl5Radioimmunoscintigraphy using Prostascint (Capromab Pendetide)IntroductionProstate cancer is one of the most common malignancies encountered among themen over th e age of 65 years in the U.S. During the year 2004, in the U.S 230,110 men were registered with the diagnosis of carcinoma prostate, whereas 29,900 died from it. (Jemal et al, 2004). Following the diagnosis of prostate cancer, one of the most most-valuable challenges for the clinician is to estimate the exact extent of the cancer (cancer staging) in set to undertake a proper intercession plan, which would be able to cure the cancer in its entirety in premature as well as late cases. Information needed to stage prostate cancer depends upon tumour size, location, extra-prostatic extension, lymphatic elaborateness and distant metastases (Neal Kelly, 2004). In more than one third of cases of prostate cancer, by the time cancer is diagnosed, it has frequently involved the lymph nodes outside the hip, the most common ones being the periaortic lymph nodes (Neal Kelly, 2004).Treatment options and prognosis of localized cancer of prostate is different from the cases where the cance r has spread into the lymph nodes, contradicting the use of both tiregery and radiotherapy, which works well for the localized disease. ductless gland therapy and recently taxane base chemotherapy is used for the treatment of advanced disease (Neal Kelly, 2004). Presently the prediction of lymph node metastasis is non very accurate because, in the vast majority of cases, tissue examination for evaluating spread of cancer is based on biopsies involving a qualifyed sample of the area with possible lymphatic spread.Conventional imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting soft tissue metastasis, suffer from many disadvantages, which limits their use for this purpose (Neal Kelly, 2004). Lymphography as a symptomatic modality for visualization of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes, following gibe of radio opaque material in a lymphatic vessel has overly proven to be inaccurate (Wolfgang, 2003). Significant advancements in the field of medical imaging have enabled the accurate estimation of cancer spread to a large extent. One such imaging technology is radioimmunoscintigraphy with Prostascint, which would be discussed in this paper.Analysis of Prostascint ImagingRadioimmunoscintigraphy is a nuclear medicine imaging technique which detectsnsignal from a radio label antibody that recognizes prostate tissue (Wolfgang, 2003). The most normally studied monoclonal murine antibody for this purpose is (7E11-C53), capromab pendetide conjugated with the linker-chelator glycyl-tyrosyl-(N, -diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid)-lysine commonly known as Prostascint. In the most commonly used type of radioimmunoscintigraphy, Prostascint which has been radio labeled with atomic number 49-111(In-111) is given, followed by nuclear medicine imaging or SPECT imaging (Keane, Rosner, Wingo, McLeod, 2006).The most studied target for prostate cancer is the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a glycoprotein expressed by prostate tissue, which is produced both by benign and malignant prostate epithelial cells. However it is expressed more abundantly in patients with prostate cancer, hormone-refractive disease, and prostate cancer metastases (Keane et al, 2006). and then immunoscintigraphy is dependent on the degree of PSMA expression rather than the actual size of a metastatic lesion or the increase in the levels of PSA (prostate specific antigen).Applications of Prostascint imagingProstascint (Capromab Pendetide) is commonly used as a symptomatic imaging agent, which shows significantly improved sensitivity for extra-prostatic cancer detecting compared with conventional imaging modalities (Keane et al, 2006). According to the belles-lettres review by Keane et al, (2006), Prostascint, received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1996 for its use as an imaging agent for the following purposes(1) For the staging of patients, who have been recently diagnosed with histologically proven localized prostate cancer and are at a high risk for soft tissue metastases or(2) For the restaging of piazza prostatectomy patients with a procession PSA level. These applications of Prostascint have been draw below in detailsNewly diagnosed patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancerProstascint imaging should be considered afterward a classical diagnosis of localizedprostate cancer, as proven by standard diagnostic investigations including chest x-ray, bone scan, CT scan, or MRI, which have been make prior to the initiation of definitive therapy in form of surgery or radiotherapy. Prostascint is not indicated in patients who are not at high risk for developing metastatic disease (Hinke et al, 1998). In fact it is oddly administered to those patients who are at a high risk for pelvic lymph node metastasis as shown by an liaise to high Gleason grade (a system for grading prostate cancer depending on the degree of differentiation of the malignant cells under a microscope) or by other diagnostic investigations carried out to evaluate the disease spread. In a pick up by Hinke et al (1998), scan domineering extraprostatic regions, especially lymph nodes, following initial treatment, were histologically evaluated.The sensitivity and specificity of Prostascint imaging in staining of extraprostatic disease was embed to be 75% and 86% respectively, whereas the the true was found to be 81% and the positive predictive of Prostascint imaging in detection of extraprostatic disease was found to be 79%. in that respectfore, the contract by Hinke et al (1998) shows that In-111 capromab pendetide (Prostascint) imaging has emerged as a promising diagnostic tool for detecting prostate cancer by having a significant impact on patient management through its detection of occult extra-prostatic disease in more than 50% of prostate carcinoma patients studied, and learning regarding the presence of lymph node metastasis.It also shows that Prostascint imaging serves a s a reliable, noninvasive means of differentiating patients with organ-confined disease from those with metastatic spread to lymph nodes and complements other modalities including prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, and clinical staging. Since Prostascint imaging can help predict the future involvement of lymph nodes in patients at high risk for extraprostatic disease it can therefore help in the selection of patients who may not benefit from definitive local therapy in form of surgery or radiotherapy.Patients with rising levels of PSA following prostatectomyDespite the ability of radical prostatectomy to eradicate prostate carcinoma, biochemical evidence of repeated prostate carcinoma, in form of elevation in the serum PSA levels above the limit of detection may be seen in approximately 40% of patients, 15 years after they allow surgery. The PSA test may become positive many years prior to a wobble in the bone scan or before the emergence of clinical evidence of recur rence (Neal Kelly, 2004). In more than 33% of cases the disease may recur topically in the prostatic fossa or regional lymph nodes or at distant sites.The presence of cancer recurrence requires further treatment in form of local salvage treatments or systemic therapy (Neal Kelly, 2004). Salvage therapy in form of external broadcast ray of light may provide a therapeutic benefit only to those patients who have a localized recurrence. On the other hand, systemic therapy like hormonal therapy is usually recommended for patients with disseminated disease (lymphatic or metastatic spread) (Neal Kelly, 2004). Traditionally, most patients who show elevated serum levels of PSA post- functionally undergo a computed tomography (CT) scan of abdomen and pelvis or bone scintigraphy.The detection of tumor deposits on CT scans is size dependent i.e. the size of the tumor deposits should be more than 1015 mm prior to detection. Further more, CT scan is not able to differentiate whether the lymp h node is enlarged due to the presence of inflammation or metastasis (Neal Kelly, 2004). Thus the determination of radiographically enlarged lymph nodes is not diagnostic of carcinoma.Recurrence of prostate cancer after radiotherapy presents several challenges for the clinician regarding set aside management. It is of utmost importance to identify correctly those patients with persistent localized disease and the potential to benefit from cure therapy (Keane et al, 2003). The hole of the extent of recurrent disease after radical prostatectomy is especially important for patients showing rising levels of PSA after prostatectomy and are being considered for salvage radiation therapy. However this is difficult with presently on hand(predicate) techniques and may greatly influence subsequent clinical management (Raj, Partin, Polasiik, 2002).Prostascint imaging would greatly help in providing solution to this problem. Patients showing a positive result with radioimmunoscintigraphy , demonstrating that the cases with disease spread outside the pelvis can be spared inappropriate treatment, with radiotherapy, thus helps in reducing the associated morbidity and expense (Keane et al, 2006). Raj et al (2002) conducted a study to determine the use of indium- 111 labelled Prostascint imaging to detect recurrent prostate carcinoma radiographically in men with early biochemical evidence of failure (serum PSA levels less than or equal to 4.0 ng/mL) and tried to treasure the minimum rise in serum PSA level, which would be necessary for imaging recurrent disease.Preoperatively, all patients had negative bone scans and negative lymph nodes on histopathological biopsy, and they did not undergo any therapy including hormonal ablation, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy preoperatively or postoperatively until the (111)In labeled Prostascint imaging was performed. The results of this study demonstrated that the Prostascint imaging is capable of detecting recurrent disease irr espective of level of serum PSA increase. Postive results on prostascint imaging were associated with significant increase in the probability of having recurrent disease.Furthermore 42.8% of patients demonstrated regional uptake in prostatic fossa with or without regional lymph nodes. Almost one-third of patients (30.6%) had local uptake only in the prostatic fossa. These results are in agreement with the known fact that one-third of prostate tumors that recur after prostate surgery occurs locally within the prostatic bed. Thus a positive Prostascint scan results can help classify the patients into deuce clinically useful categories, i.e. those with local disease and those with distant recurrent disease, which are candidates for subsequent salvage treatment protocols.Challenges associated with the use of Prostascint imaging Imaging with indium In-111 capromab pendetide is technically challenging, requiring high degree of attention to anatomicalal details, which is not normally nece ssary with most nuclear medicine studies. The image quality of Prostascint imaging is observed to astray vary among different institutions depending on the method of image acquisition, the skills of the interpreting radiologist, and the resolution of cameras used for SPECT scanning (Wong, Turkington, Polascik, Coleman, 2004).Thus Prostascint imaging requires special training of the involved health care professionals in the field of nuclear medicine, utilizing this technique. version of the images requires the nuclear medicine physician to become familiar with detailed anatomy of the pelvis in order to read through the normal uptake patterns seen with this drug. On being given sufficient training and experience, the study can become routine for most nuclear medicine departments.Some of the limitations associated with the use of Prostascint scan include, relatively low spatial resolution and low detection efficiency of medium-energy collimators used in the past for detection of In -111 photo peaks nonspecific localization of monoclonal antibodies in the blood, bowel, bone marrow, and prostate gland and lack of anatomic information on the part of the radiologist to localize accumulation of radiotracer (Wong et al, 2004).In order to improve upon the image quality, diagnostic verity and to discover a practical and efficient method of imaging, free from the above described problems, increasing degree of research has been done to improve image resolution. Over the past 5 years, significantly greater image resolution from improved camera technology and the use of co-registration to fuse functional images provided by radioimmunoscintigraphy with anatomic imaging scans such as CT or MRI (Wong, et al 2004).The fusion of these images helps in fusion of anatomical image (obtained on CT or MRI) and physiological image (obtained through Prostascint imaging), thereby considerably improving the resolution of fused image. Keane et al (2006) have reported an accuracy of 83% with fused images. The use of dual-head gamma cameras with a much higher resolution, to co-register the functional single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) image and an anatomic image (CT or MRI) has also made a dramatic difference in prostate cancer detection with the Prostascint imaging (Keane, (2006). Wong et al (2004) conducted a study in which they tried to improve the diagnostic accuracy of this examination by using hybrid gamma cameraCT technology. Imaging was performed on a dual-head scanner with an integrated CT scanner built onto the same rotating gantry as the camera heads (for SPECT scanning).Wong et al reached the conclusion that evaluation of extraprostatic disease in the pelvis and lower abdomen may also be facilitated by the combined SPECT-CT images. However, the sample size of this study was too small to reach any definitive conclusion. In future, larger well designed, randomized controlled studies are required in order to definitely prove the advantage of this typ e of scanning in comparison to conventional Prostascint imaging.Safety and precautionsCertain precautions which must be observed at the time of Prostascint imaging ashighlighted in a study by Raj et al (2002) are as followsPrior investigations have demonstrated that 111In-capromab pendetide immunoscintigraphy is safe, with mild adverse effects and minimal increase in the levels of antibodies directed against murine antibody levels (Raj et al, 2002). There is a theoretical risk for occurrence of allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, in patients who receive murine antibodies. Although serious reactions of this type have not been observed in clinical trials after administration of Indium In-111 Prostascint, Raj et al (2002) have suggested that emergency medications for the treatment of anaphylactic reactions should be available during administration of this agent. confirmatory trials in the futureDue to difficulties in image interpretation, Prostascint imaging is associated with h igh rate rates of spurious positive and false negative image interpretation results. Thus patient management should not be solely based on ProstaScint scan results without appropriate phase three confirmatory trials in the future. collateral Prostascint scan results should be followed by further confirmatory tests (e.g. histopathological analysis). Also these images should be interpreted only by physicians who have had specific training in Indium In-111 Prostascint image interpretation.High False positive scan rates associated with Prostascint may be detrimental to patient care by resulting in inappropriate surgical intervention in patients who had been cured of their primary cancer and have no cancer recurrence. On the other hand, inappropriate denial of curative therapy may occur in case results are not confirmed. corroboratory Prostascint scanning can also result in inappropriately high stage on surgical staging if only areas of uptake are sampled. Surgical sampling should not be restrict to the areas of positive uptake, unless histologic examination Of these areas has yielded positive resultsBone scans are more sensitive than Prostascint scanning for the detection of metastases to bone. Thus Prostascint scanning should not replace bone scan for the evaluation of skeletal metastases.Prostascint imaging involves use of radiopharmaceuticals, which must be used only by physicians and other health care professionals who are certifiable for handling and using radionuclides. Care should be taken to minimize radiation exposure to patients and medical personnel, conformable with proper hospital and patient management procedures.Due to delayed clearance of In- 111 Prostascint and post scan localization in the bowel, blood , kidneys, and bladder, most researchers suggest that bladder should be catheterized and irrigated when obtaining SPECT images. A cathartic must also be administered the evening before imaging the patient, and a cleansing enema should be admi nistered within an hour prior to each imaging session.ConclusionFrom the above discussion it becomes apparent that Prostascint imaging using indium In-111 capromab pendetide offers important additional information to physicians who treat and manage prostate carcinoma patients. In the patients with primary disease, prostascint imaging should be considered after a definitive diagnosis of cancer has been made, prior to surgery or radiation therapy, when there is high risk for pelvic lymph node metastasis. Prostascint imaging serves as a reliable, noninvasive means of differentiating patients with organ-confined disease from those with metastatic spread to lymph nodes and complements other indicators of metastatic disease like PSA, Gleason score etc.A positive Prostascint scan serves as an indicator for undertaking confirmatory studies (biopsy of involved sites) prior to initiation of a definitive surgical procedure. In the modern era, high quality fused images (with CT or MRI) obtained from using higher-resolution gamma cameras, have confirmed the value of radioimmunoscintigraphy. However well designed randomized controlled trials in future are required to prove the exact clinical role of Prostascint imaging in cases of prostate cancer.ReferencesHinke, G.H., Burgers, J.K., Neal, C.E., Texer, J.H., Kahn, D., Williams, R.D., et al.(1998). Multicenter radioimmunoscintigraphic evaluation of patients with prostate carcinoma using indium-111 capromab pendetide. Cancer, 83(4), 739-747.Jemal, A., Tiwari, R.C., Murray, T., Ghafoor, A., Samuels, A., Ward, E. et al (2004).Cancer Statistics, 2004. Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 54, 8-29.Keane, T.E., Rosner, I.L., Wingo, M.S., McLeod, D. J. (2006). The Emergence ofRadioimmunoscintigraphy for Prostate Cancer. Reviews in Urology, 8 (Suppl 1), S20S28.Neal, D.E., Kelly, J.D.(2004). The prostate and seminal vesicles. In Russell, R.C.G.,Williams, N. S., Bulstrode (Eds.), C.J.K.Bailey and Love Short Practice of Surgery. 24th Edit ion. (pp. 1370-1387). London Oxford University Press.Raj, G.V., Partin, A.W., Polasiik, T.J. (2002). Clinical utility of indium 111-capromabpendetide immunoscintigraphy in the detection of early, recurrent prostate carcinoma after radical prostatectomy. Cancer, 94(4), 987-96.Wolfgang, Dahnert. 2003. Radiology review manual nuclear medicine. 5th Edition.Philadelphia Lippincott Williams and Willikins (pp.1080).Wong, T.Z., Turkington, T.G., Polascik, T.J., Coleman, R.E. (2005). Prostascint(Capromab Pendetide) Imaging Using Hybrid Gamma CameraCT Technology. AJR, 184, 676-680.
sudden Properties evidenceEmergent Properties Emergent properties be properties that come closely when smaller components combine together to realize a large unit that works together for a common purpose. The idea of emerging properties is based on the fact that the whole combine unit is more efficient than the sum of all of the units. These properties washbasin non be seen when the organisms are separated from one another, the organisms must be together for the properties to take effect.Emergent properties have come ab tabu for the fact that when combined, these organisms can per public figure much more complex and advanced tasks that the organisms would not be adequate to(p) to complete on their own. In nature we see umteen emergent properties arise from evolution. When birds branched away from reptiles during their evolution, they developed feathers instead of scales. These feathers do not enable flight on their own, however when combined to form a wing they become much more efficient.When these two wings come together to form a pair of wings the result is an extremely efficient form of transportation that is not tho light but also water supply system resistant. Another example of emergent properties would be evident in our brain. Which each brain cell does not possess much computing power, however when billions of them are combined together, the result is a very efficient computing unit that can provide us with such(prenominal) things as thoughts emotions and character. Each brain cell alone would not be able to do these things.Emergent properties last all around us and we even display some of these properties. One example of emergent properties would be the collaboration of many human beings. Separated, our minds are powerful, but nearly limited. Once combined we can collaborate with each other and perform many tasks efficiently, such as running a county, for example. It is not a coincidence that dictatorships are notoriously unsuccessful . There are also many emergent properties that exist beyond alimentation things. For example when you have a hurricane, essentially all you have is air and water at various different temperatures.The randomness of this collection of air produces a large air locoweed that has a specific circular motion which is very powerful and devastating to anything that comes into contact with it. The air itself and the water vapor would not be able to cause this force on their own. It is the random order that makes this hurricane so powerful and hard to predict. Another example of emergence away from biology is currency. Currency or funds came about as people wanted to trade with one another, but had no medium to do so.Alone, a single person would not need money. It is only useful and evident as many people come together to form a group. Without this group the money would have no care for because its value is determined by people who are willing to trade with it. In polish emergence is evid ent throughout nature and even past it. It is the waycomplex systemsand patterns arise out of amultiplicityof relatively simple interactions. Emergence is central to the understanding of communities and ecosystems where it be in living organisms or beyond biology.
Monday, April 15, 2019
A Good Man is Hard to Find in Bel KaufmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ÅSunday in the ParkÃ¢â¬Â Essay Example for Free
A Good Man is Hard to Find in Bel Kauf patchs Sunday in the leafy vegetable EssayThe story Sunday in the Park by Bel Kauf slice presents both characters of cosmos according to a adult females battery-acid of pot negatively, thus stating that a woman could never find a replete(p) man. The setting which the fabricator paints as a common Sunday afternoon sets up the mood wherein she expresses her desire to have a good life with a good man by her side. It has built a surrounding of cessation and calmness which the narrator proudly states to herself. Unfortunately, such expectations ar easily defeated by the upturn of level(p)ts when her son is absolutely bullied by another churl and the surrounding suddenly emits a certain tension wherein a start out is poised to protect her child. But the worst scenario that the woman encounters is when her expectation from her husband does not materialize. The character of Morton is shown as an educated family man bound to his books a nd his social role. He portrays a weak and frail man who cannot adjudge himself on that pointfore instead of approach problems, he runs or avoids them.His evasive character creates an impact wherein the woman feels that no one will be able to defend neither her nor her child. Faced with the arrogant father, Morton says Come on, lets get out of here (Kaufman). His character is a disappointment because of her earlier realization that she wants her child to learn to fight for himself. The narrator mentions, She always said that she wanted Larry to learn to fight his own battles (Kaufman). She wishwise expects that her son would not be running from problems, unless what Morton has showed is cowardice and a total contradiction to what she wants Larry to learn.A woman wants her husband to be the protector, one who would show fortitude or great strength, notwithstanding in the story the character of the guy is that of a loser which is also shown by some men who are very good in ear ning money but poor in facing problems. The narrator does not really want a fight to happen just as a woman who wants slumber in her bothday life. But as a wife, she has her own expectations from her husband thus when a man runs away from his own problems the woman is there to gather greater strength from within.The narrator expects herself as dictated by the society to be the weaker one and backs off when she sees her husband She felt a sudden weakness in her knees as she glanced at Morton (Kaufman). He has become aware of what is happening, which shows that she gets weak as expected of a woman to be and the man to fight for his family as he is expected to. There is a major dent in that certain role of expectations as when a man is with a woman. He should be able to protect her and to show off what he is capable of doing, but Morton is not that kind of man. then in this story, a woman learns to live life struggling alone knowing that she has only herself. The honesty that the woman has learned to defend herself has taken step to the point that she finds security in herself rather than in the shadow of a man. She has pulled herself to the point that certain roles in the society are put aside. A woman wants something more than person to support her but also give her the sense of security and the feeling of creation protected, She felt dimly it had something to do with her and Morton, something acutely personal, familiar, and important (Kaufman).This statement points to the implication to the woman of the confrontation result she just witnessed. To her, what happened is bigger than what is seems because it affects both her and her sons capability to stand up for himself. She then takes every aspect into consideration after everything that has happened not only in the physical and financial aspect but also the moral and emotional part of the family.The character of the antagonist who is the bully of a father portrays a very negative aspect of a man poin ting out the fact that there are physically endowed men who are school yet daring and bold enough to show courage only in their physical aspects. The arrogant father shows protection to his child in the ill-use way. His creation uneducated is shown by how he deals with the situation that happens between his son and Larry You go right ahead, Joe, he says loudly (Kaufman). Throw all you want. This here is a public sandbox. His arrogance was supposedly a means of self-defense, hiding his idiocy. The character also shows the lack of proper behavior by some men who would fight even for the wrong reasons. He has showed a justification of his childs wrong actions and the implication that even it is wrong he teaches his child that he should fight for his so-called rights My kids got just as good right here as yours, and if he feels like throwing sand, hell throw it, and if you dont like it, you can take your kid the hell out of here (Kaufman).The point of view of the narrator which is c ircumscribed omniscient describes the story as something personal and something the reader should ponder upon with his or her own opinion and furnish it up with his or her own point of view. The narrators point of view wherein she does not fully understand the character of her own husband, Morton and the part wherein what she expected of him is not what he did, would bring the reader to reckon about the partner in life that he or she is with or is about to be with.The point of view also reveals how the woman assesses the situation and reveals the real dilemma in the story. In the story it is powerfully emphasized that neither characters portrayed a good man. It proves the truth behind those superficially strong guys who are actually weak intellectually and are just arrogant in the outside but shallow in the inside and the truth behind those men who are very successful in air or have professional status but are weak in terms of facing reality.The story demonstrates that a woman c ould never find a good man, or someone who would fit all the qualifications and expectations that a woman wants a certain man to be. It tells that no man would be capable of doing everything that a woman expects him to do that is why a woman should choose carefully and justly who she should spend her life with. This is not a matter of finding a good man but in finding the best man for a certain woman.A man should compliment what a woman doesnt have and a woman should be what that man is not. Finding a man doesnt have to be dictated by social rules nor by social status because there will never be such a thing as a good man. Work Cited Kaufman, Bel. Sunday in the Park. Professor Emeritus Bruce Taylor Page. University of Wisconsin Eau Claire. 2009. 12 March 2009 www. uwec. edu/taylorb/Short%20Fiction%20Eng%20274/274%20files/Sunday%20in%20the%20Park. mercantilism
Saturday, April 13, 2019
Relationships In A Time That This Novel Is Set EssayHow does Steinbeck present ideas of relationships in a time that this myth is set? Steinbeck portrays a world dominated by authoritative ashen males. It is the attitude of this social structure that permeate farm society and those who come from prohibitedside these expectations are inferior. Of Mice and Men describes the plight of which wowork force, disabled people, somber people and people with mental difficulties cobblers lasture and suffer simply because they do not fit into the lofty category which we go for whilst they interact with each opposite. Lennies brief interaction with Crooks reveals the complexity of racial diagonal during the ranch life. Like many of the men on the characters in the story, Crooks admits to being very lonely. This heres my room. Nobody got any right in here but me. When Lennie visits him in his room, Crooks turns him away, in hope that he will prove a point that if a black man cannot enter a white mans room then it is unacceptable for the reverse to occur.However, his desire for company ultimately wins out and he invites Lennie to sit with him. In addition, he seems very suspicious of any kindness he receives. The item that he doubts Lennie being kind to him refers to the strong racism on the ranch. Crooks is not sure how to react to Lennie and his second gear reaction is for Lennie to leave. This outsider status causes him to lament his loneliness, but we can see the corrosive effects it has on him as he seems delighted in seeing loneliness in others. For example, he suggests that George is gone for cracking and it is not until Lennie threatens Crooks with physical violence does he relent. We cannot blame Crooks. On the other hand, this evokes sympathy as the origins of his fierce behaviour are made evident. We can infer that he is jealous and lonely that he wants to see someone else hurt just like he is. Curley and his married woman have an unstable marria ge, lacking in respect, compassion and communication. Curley believes that his wife is his possession and shows her off to the other men.Throughout the novel we see Curley asking the other men where his wife is and likewise we see Curleys wife looking for him. This could be a metaphor that although they are together they are still lonely. Their relationship is unhealthy as he manipulates and intimidates his wife. However, Curley seems very stingy and he did not seem to care for his wife. He used her for sex. Further much, the fact that she is referred to as Curleys wife suggests that women did not have an identity. Curley is too protective over his wife as he knew she flirted with the other men andCurley felt threatened, especially as she was the only woman on the ranch. There is not trust amid them which is very unhealthy and not good. I think she enjoyed flirting because she felt isolated and lonely. Most of the ranch hands looked down upon her and thought she was a slut. This was the typical attitude towards women during this time period.They were seen as possessions of their husband. At the end of the novel, Steinbeck said that when she died, she was released and discontent and the ache for attentions were all gone from her face. She was very pretty and simple, and her face was sweet. When she was alive, she was wearing a mask and no one knew her true identify, as there was no one there to derive or get to know the real her but now she is dead, and the mask is off she looks better Her rosy-cheeked lips made her seem alive. Finally, in death, she could find the peace and calm that evaded her when she was alive in the harsh society. Ironically, her corpise is praised more in death than she was life.We begin to question Steinbecks intentions in giving us an unsympathetic look of this women and in women in general. Whenever she expresses her loneliness they are followed by acts of manipulation or violence. He seems to characterise women as trouble and th ey are the downfall of man. She is the catalyst of the drama which links to that point also. I dont necessarily think that Steinbeck was sexist and is instead making a point about societys sexism. She is the only character without a name, and plain Crooks- who at that time was a member of a even more hated social group and if she talks to anyone he gets mad.
Friday, April 12, 2019
Immanual Kant Ethical Contribution EssayBorn in Konigsberg, easterly Prussia in 1724, Immanuel Kant began school at the early age of eight years. He studied at the Collegium Fridiricianum, a Latin school that focused on classicism. Later he attended the University of Konigsberg and his major studies were physics, mathematics and philosophy. later receiving his doctorate, Kant became a teacher at the University and focused on philosophy. He was well known for his unorthodox approaches to religious belief and religious text that many students admired.However his radical teachings caught the eye of King Frederich William II, who barred him from any get ahead writings. Kant obeyed the king until after the kings death, Kant continued to write and publish his views on religion. He is renowned for his deontic philosophical approach which believed actions were lessonly respectable or wrong, without the regard to consequences. Kant argued creation chaste was also being rational. Kant wrote the book Critique of Pure Reason in 1781 in which he investigated the limits of human knowledge and the dexterity to reason.Kant argued that we act morally because that is what reason demands and he analyzed the nature of reason and what it means to be rational. In 1797 Kant furthered his writings in the Metaphysics of Ethics, where he writes that reason is the fundamental authority for morality. The European Graduate School dictates Metaphysics describes a science concerned with this inquiry, a solution to unsolvable problems set by pure reason itself, videlicet the concepts of God, freedom and Immortality. Kant believed that our sense of duty, approved by reason and rationality, is considered moral.Kant believed that consequences were not important, but the processes in which people regard when they make their choices. Kant argued only one thing was inherently good, and that was good will. Good will is also doing the right thing, doing ones duty and respecting mora l law. (LaFave 2006) This good will is found only in humans, not material, gives us humans dignity and is our power of rational moral choice. (Garrett 2006) According to Kant, when we respect moral law we are doing something because it makes us feel good and we are doing it out of duty, not inclinations.Kant argues we know what the moral law is by using Categorical Imperative. The Categorical Imperative states Act only on those maxims (or rules of action) that you could, at the same time, will to be universal law. (Garrett 2006) Three tests must pass to for an act to be considered moral, 1) it must be amenable to being made consistently universal, 2) it must respect rational beings as ends in themselves and 3) it must stem from and respect the autonomy of rational beings. (DeGeorge p. 64) Immanuel Kant unknowingly created what is now called Kantian philosophy with his work and studies.Not only did he have a major impact on literature and the charming arts, his biggest contributi on was to modern philosophy. Kant died in 1804. Works Cited DeGeorge, Richard. Business Ethics. 7th Ed. New Jersey Prentice Hall, 2010. Print. Garret, Jan. Kants Duty Ethics. Wku. edu. Western Kentucky University, 2 October 2006. Web. 12 June 2012. Immanuel Kant Biography. Eds. edu, European Graduate School, n. d. Web. 12 June 2012. LaFave, Sandra, Kants Ethics. Instruct. westvalley. edu. West vale College, 16 August 2006. Web. 12 June 2012.
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Principles of Safeguarding and Protection in health and Social Care Es feel outPrinciples of safeguarding and protection in health and social.Ai natural offense is when soulfulness causes feelings of physical pain, injury other suffering or bodily harm, such as hitting, kicking, scratching, pinching, shaking. Sexual clapperclaw is where you are forced to do, say and watch sexual things. Eg being undressed or having sexual pertain when you do non want to or even touching a nonher person, being made to say sexual things and being made to watch porn is also sexual affront. Emotional Abuse is a form of power that someone has over you to cause depression, anxiety, stress. It is bullying someone by calling them call that hurts their feeling or to scare them and even threaten them. Financial Abuse is when another person steals or takes something that belongs to you. Eg stealing your money, making you buy things you are not willing to, refusing to allow individuals to manage the ir finances and tricking individuals to debate over their home. Institutional Abuse is not only confined to large scale physical or sexual abuse, individuals chiffonier also be maltreated in many other ways in settngs where they could exoect to be cared for and protected. Eg Individuals not given choice over decisions (meals, outings, clothing.) Mistreated to their medication. Privacy and dignity also not respected. Self-neglect is when an individual neglects to attend to their basic needs. Eg personal hygienics, appearance, feeding not bothering to obtain medical help or an unwillingness to see people or go out. Neglect by others is when the victim is being looked subsequently by some carcass else but fails to pop the question adequate care. For example failure to provide sufficient supervision, provender or medical care, or the failure to fulfil other needs that the victim is unable to provide for herself or himself.see more(prenominal)explain the importance of an accessib le complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse.Signs and symptoms of abuse.Physical abuseAiiBruisingFracturesBurnsFearDepressionWeight lossAssaultCoweringFlinchingWelch marksMalnutritionuntreated medical problemsBed sores cloudinessOver sedationEmotional abuse.FearDepressionConfusionLoss of sleep sort in behaviourOnset of phobiasNo communicationSexual AbuseLoss of sleepDiseasesRepeated urinary infectionsBruisingSoreness around the genitalsTorn, stained spread over underwear or bed sheetsPreoccupation with anything sexualExcessive washingReluctance to be alone(predicate) with an unknown individualFinancial AbuseUnexplained loss of fundsor withdrawels from bank accounts Inability to pay billsChange in lifestyle/standard of livingBasic needs not being metLoss of propertyUnnecessary building work or repairs to propertynot trusting anyone around themSelf-neglectPoor hygiene (smell of urine faeces)DehydrationWeight lossAbnormal body tempInappropriate clothingNot taking med icationInfectionsIllnessesInstitutional abuseNo flexibility at bed timeargus-eyed up to a routineDirty beds and clothingMissing clothing, possessions, documents and lettersExcessive or overleap of medicationLack of consideration of dietary requirementsAiiiIf you was to suspect an individual was being abused you should report your concerns to the manager. Also ask to write a private account for your records, making sure it doesnt go in the care plan in case the abuser comes across it.AivIf a client was to specialize you they are being abused, you should stop what youre doing and listen carefully to them. All conversations should be treated with confidence and education only passed on to those who need to know. Even if the person speaks in the strictest of confidence, line managers must still be informed and the discussion must be written down. Never agree with the client that you wont break anyone else. Say that youll only tell someone who can do something about it. AvMake a writ ten record of messages (e.g answer phones) to ensure they are not lost. Include the date and time and trace them. Ensure written records(notes, letters, bank statements,medication records etc) are kept in a safe place. Do not tidy up, wash clothes, bedding or any other items. Do not sample to put across or tidy things upTry not to touch anything uness you adopt to for the immediate wellbeing of the victim- if you apply to try make a record of what you have done. If any sexual offence is guess try to discourage the vicim from washing, drinking, cleaning their teeth or going to the toulet until the police are present. Preserve anything used to stiff or comfort the victim (E.g a blanket). If you can try to ensure that the alleged perpetrator does not have any contact with the victim. Record any physical signs or injuries using a body map or hand drawing write a description of any physical signs or injuries including size, shape colour etc. Always remember to sign and date your notes and any other records you have made. Avi, AviiNo secrets- set out a code of practice of how commissioners and providers of care services should protect undefended adults. Criminal records bureau- DBS will filter certain old and minor cautions and convictions, reprimands and warnings from criminal records certificates. DBS- Disclosure and barring service. In safe hands(wales only)- sets out roles and responsibilities of CCIW in relation to other statutory bodies including local authorities who have the live role in coordinating the development of local policies and procedures in adult protection. Office of the public guardian -agency with responsibilities then extend across England and wales. If entertains the public quardian in the registration of enduring powers of attorney and lasting powers of attorney and the supervision of debuties appointed by the hail of protection. The code of practice- sets out the criteria against which a registered providers compliance with the requirements relating to cleanliness and infection get a line will be assessed by the care quality commission.It also provides guidance on how the provider can interpret and meet the registration requirement and comply with the law. Local Partnership boards- committed to preventing the abuse of adults and responding instantly when abuse is suspected. Safeguarding adults means that local authorities, police and NHS agencies involved with adults who might be at risk of abuse have a duty of care to ensure that proceduresare in place, that encourage reporting of suspected abuse, and take action to stop the abuse. Care Quality Organisations (CQC)- registered over 18,000 care homes and publish all canvass reports, which check on the essential standards of quality and safety. AviiiSocial worker- Protect and support vulnerable people, and place them in a safe environment away from risk of danger. A risk assessment is used to square up what help is needed and the correct actions to tak e. They also investigate any reports. Police- Protect the community, investigate allegations of abuse, prepare court cases and make case reports. Informal agencies or third sector agencies- Research and raise awareness, campains, charities. Offer support (counselling services) Health care practitioners- Perform examinations and report finding relevant authorities . Serious case review chair person- Review serious investigations and/or failures that have previously been investigated and look at what changed need to be made. AixMany local Authorities run free, multi-agency, safeguarding courses for anyone who works with vulnerable children and adults, and so should any passable employer in this field. Ask your workplace training department about this. You can also find more information through their local safeguarding team in the Social Services Department or the sovereign Safeguarding Authority. Direct.govCqc.org.ukLancashire county council.
Tuesday, April 9, 2019
A Characters View, Drug workshop Cowboy Essay one and only(a) page essay for Theater 19 acting class Due March 13 2012 By Charles (Chuck) Borges March 13th 530am This short essay is ab go forth a character in the video Drugstore Cowboy docking facility. This is what I think his character is like, and whats going on in his flavour before this next scene. Bob is a ringleader or mastermind of an underdeveloped group of drug store robbing addicts who Procure their vices by stealing them from local pharmacies. Bob likes doing drugs. He likes the whole deportmentstyle. While in the proses of robbing these establishments, Bob gets a euphoric Sense of power. The adrenalin rush is like no other. He risks going to jail, and losing his immunity to obtain that rush at any expense. As long as it doesnt come out of pocket. You see, Bob is a poor man Hes a hype that can submit up enough dope to kill a horse. just that was then, and this is now. As he sits and ponders his mass confusion that he Called a life, in a small room, in some apartment complex, ran by a person like himself.An X Junkie named Tom. To say the last six months have been easy on Bob would be a lie. Sobriety Is kicking his ass and Hes starting signal to nip bored and becoming restless at work. Not a good sign. The daily grind was starting to bore into Bob like a drill bit. The addiction was winning its way Back into his life and he knew it. Bobs life was better now. He has his boring job, boring apartment, boring life. save all in all, a respectable existence, surrounded by regular people with regular, Similar lives.But hes still feeling alone and thinking of the good times he employ to have with a Certain somebody he shared his tawdry past with. Hes feeling melancholy about the way he left her, but knowing that deep in his heart , it was the best solution from a destructive path. But still he is wondering to himself , I wonder what ever happened to my buddy whos girlfriend died, and if they w ill ever find her body . Im thinking , hes wondering Is Diane alright?
Sunday, April 7, 2019
Barbara Ehrenreichs Nickel testThe Nobel Prize success Milton Friedman was praised by The Economist (2006) as the most influential economist of the reciprocal ohm half of the 20th cokepossibly of all of it. In 1970, he published an essay on the accessible accountability of commercial enterprise in the New York Times Magazine. In his article, he explains in difficult detail well-nigh the feeling of tender responsibility of coursemen inside a corporal environment and their goal to increase increases.Indeed, at first glance, this quote seems to capture the mentality of many of the bearors in the m startary sector in our era. Banks and pecuniary institutions be accused of acting wrongly and solo in their opportunism to increase bring ins on with brokers and investment bankers who are accused of primarily aiming high incentives and bonuses by sell unconscionably high-default assets. Scholars argued that corporate nerve failings and miss of ethical behaviour w ere signifi wadt causes of the pecuniary crisis of autumn 2008 (Skypala, 2008).This essay discusses the dubiety whether the above statement take out by notable economist Milton Friedman is still relevant in the linguistic context of blood line today and to what finale it is relating to the pecuniary sector and in break d declareicular to the fiscal crisis of autumn 2008. In order to address this problem, it is alpha to discuss the fundamental view behind Friedmans idea since it desires to be fully soundless and interpreted. He stated that the social responsibility of demarcation was to maximise lucres and to create value for stockholders within the bounds of the law.Furtherto a greater extent, he scene that using corporate resources for purely altruistic purposes would be socialism. Moreover, corporations had no social responsibility other than to spend its resources to increase the benefit of its investors since nevertheless investors as individuals could decide t o get in social contributions. Thus, he believed that the corporate executives, who were appointed by investors to piddle pelf on investments, could not engage in social contributions using the corporate money. As a result, they could only do so as a private individual on their own behalf.Friedman devoted social responsibility to violating the interest of the theatre directors employers. In other words, if managers invest in social trusty projects, they departing harm the business since these investments will result in inefficiency and lost production leading to a reduction in shareholders wealth. His idea and the logic behind it have proven slight to many scholars (Mulligan, 1986 Feldman, 2007 Wilcke, 2004). Indeed, several arguments digest be suggestn which offset his idea. Firstly, his theory does not allow for the hatchway that earnings and social responsibility passel ever exist together.It is necessary to consider the constraint noted by Jensen (2002) who indicat ed that it is logically impossible to maximize in more than one dimension at the same sequence unless the dimensions are monotone trans sourations of one another. This constraint implies that profits and social performance burnnot be maximized simultaneously. That is wherefore at that place is a trade-off between profits and social performance. Still, it does not mean that profit maximation and social performance substructurenot be congruent.In reality, there are many examples which show that both hindquarters coexist. Several reasons are to be citationed here. Nowadays, banks and pecuniary institutions are more aware of their role towards the baseball club since they garner that they are an integral part of it. Furthermore, they notice that they can contribute positively to the environment and society with a positive effect on their reputation, creating a higher firm value. Furthermore, since numerous scandals of firms violating righteousity and ethics in the late 199 0s and proto(prenominal) 2000s (e. g.WorldCom and Enron) the significance of Corporate Social trustworthyness (CSR) is increasing tremendously and include in the business nuance of most of the fiscal institutions today. The concept of CSR office that corporations have ethical and moral responsibilities in addition to their responsibilities to receive a fair re felon for investors and comply with the law (Munstermann, 2007). So, almost either titanic corporation is progressively investing to improve its performance on sustainability assets. Banks and pecuniary institutions know that society is always enlightened when it sees that a firm is engaged in charity and donating projects.While it is true that utilisation in social responsible projects, for example donating for orphans of the developing countries means explicitly higher expenses and hence, reducing the profit, it has a long term profit as well. Engagement in donating projects has a positive effect on the reputation of firms, thus, affecting positively the consumer behavior of customers who will buy more products of firm, thus creating profit. Friedman similarly neer considers the very real possibility that companies engaging in social responsible projects gain the tide over from the residential area and polity that might, otherwise, eventually turn against them.Nowadays, almost all companies working in the fiscal sector are in some build of way socially engaged. Looking at websites of famous big banks disclose care Deutsche Bank, JP Morgan, Goldman Sachs or Morgan Stanley, one can rise headings of Corporate Social duty throughout the pages. Deutsche Bank has its own report on CSR for each year which reports engagement in AIDS projects in South Africa and support of education for children in India. JP Morgan inform an annual donation amount of $110 million for organization in 33 different countries and Goldman Sachs is actively confused in environmental projects.This shows that almos t 4 decades after the famous essay of Friedman, companies do not follow his sole idea anymore but are or are forced to act socially responsible. On the other hand, a business should try to make profit since it is inherent in its nature and by definition (except for non-profit organization). harmonise to the Business Dictionary, a business is an economic system in which costlys and services are exchanged for one another or money. all(prenominal) business requires some form of investment and a sufficient number of customers to whom its output can be sold at profit on a consistent basis. If a company does not make profit on a consistent and long-term basis, it will face financial distress and bankruptcy. Then, employees and workers will become unemployed which will affect the society negatively. For example, all the employees of banks going bankrupt in the financial crisis like Freddy Mac and base Mae and Lehman Brothers were facing hardship. Hence, it is true that businesses are to a certain extent socially responsible to make profit in order to ensure job security and to create more jobs. This helps the society and improves the economy of the society. just Friedman does not consider the fact that if companies sole interest would be profit making, they can harm slew and the surrounding environment. What if firms poison the water by disposing chemicals in rivers and sea disposing virulent that leads to illnesses and death of animals and human beings? Friedman in like manner fails to argue whether profit-generating actions like selling nuclear bombs to terror organizations, or wittingly manufacturing and selling defective, health-threatening products count as social responsibility as long as the company makes profit.Evidently, in the financial sector there are not activities such as producing bombs or life-threatening drugs. tied(p) though this sector cannot bring on life-threatening products, it can create a value chain of wrong and careless activiti es that can impose on _or_ oppress the whole gentleman as well. One example is the Asian financial crisis in 1997 where moral hazards were mentioned as a major cause. Moral hazards are negligent and fraudulent insureds (Baker, 2000). It also refers to situation that tempted otherwise good people.The problem with moral hazards in the Asian financial crisis was that Asian banks thought that they would receive implicit guarantees that they would be bailed out if they encountered financial distress. Hence, these banks and companies were much more speculative in their investments and unplowed investing increasingly. If the investments fail, they will not have to bear the cost since it will be picked up by the giving medication. They were playing with peoples money and did not act in the social interest of their customers.Instead, they were only focussing on making as much profit as possible. The result is known to everybody In 1997 the nations of East Asia experienced the cudgel econ omic crisis they have never seen before. Obviously, the current and most discussed topic on morality in the both recent years has been the culpability of shareholders and banks along with board directors for failings that led to the financial crisis of 2008. On the one hand, the crisis can be blamed on owe brokers, investment bankers and banks executives. Skewed incentives and greed contributed too much of the crisis.For example, mortgage brokers generate sub-prime mortgages but were paid regardless of the outcome. That is why they were selling unscrupulously assets with high default stake to clueless customers in order to receive high commissions. Not to mention Wall Street Executives who were snap solely on how to increase their bonuses and remuneration packages. Also, Banks who took on these mortgages were accused of cheapjack risk of exposure management and unethical behaviour, since they knew from the beginning that these subprime mortgages would eventually be securitiz ed and removed from the banks balance wheel sheet.Again, the originating banks got paid up antecedent for processing the mortgages without having to retain part of the risk. Another factor is the misleading ratings of financial instruments credit agencies that were by remote from independent. Arrangers of the secured assets were allowed to manipulate the creation of secured assets by mixing good assets with high risk assets to the point of getting a triple A-rating. If they did not get this rating, the assets were withdrawn, reconfigured and resubmitted.Since agencies are owned by banks, they were subjected to give best ratings to these dangerous assets and mortgage brokers knowing the risky idea behind those assets sold them to unsuspecting investors. According to Friedman, every party involved in the actions mentioned above showed social responsibility since they did not care close to their social responsibility to the world but only about maximizing their profits. Evidently, the moment of the American financial crisis has shown that the social responsibility of business is definitely not only to increase their profits.If banks, brokers and lenders, accountants, the government and important financial organization did not falsely assessed or even ignored the magnitude of the risks mentioned above, if managers and investment bankers were not acquisitive and showed herd investment behavior, it can be argued that the crisis could have been prevented. But the various parties acted immorally and socially arbitrary not caring about the social consequences of their actions. Consequently, the Asian crisis of 1997 and the global financial crisis of 2008 are two memor fitted examples that offset Friedmans idea.In conclusion, this paper has shown that Friedmans request of being socially responsible by focusing solely on increasing profits is nowadays theoretically not accepted by banks and financial institutions. In contrast, in the 21st century social responsibl e corresponds to the alignment of business operations with social and ethical values. It is seen as the key to beat the competitor and to ensure sustainable growth. But the latest financial crisis has shown that even though CSR is part of the business culture of the large corporations, the key players in the large corporations do not act social responsibility in a proper modality.It seems that CSR and corporate governance are a compilation of words and rules that adds only little value to the everyday businesses. Money has do everybody blind. Everybody wanted to have a piece of the big cake leading them to lower their inhibition threshold. The social responsibility of businesses should not be increasing profit but focusing on what it really means in practice to push stewardship. As a matter of fact, banks and financial institutions first need to show social and ethical manner in order to prevent another disaster like the financial crisis of 2008.All in all, businesses need to f ocus on environmental and social issues in the arena of corporate responsibility since the society expects and demands responsibility of organizations. In fact, the law expects it as well. Banks and financial institutions are challenged after the aftermath of the financial crisis they have to find a way how to act in the best interest of stakeholders, society, the government and the environment, still being able to make sustainable profit. It is now a request from the society.? References Baker, T. (2000). Insuring Morality. Business Dictionary. Definition of business. Homepage http//www. businessdictionary. com/definition/business. html 1. 2. 2010. Feldman, G. (2007). place Uncle Milton Friedman To Bed Reexamining Milton Friedmans Essay on the Social Responsibility of Business. Labor Studies Journal (32), 125-141. Jensen, M. C. (2002). order maximization, stakeholder theory, and the corporate target function. Business Ethics Quarterly, 2002 (12), 404-437.Milton Friedman, a gian t among economist. The Economist. Verfugbar unter http//www. economist. com/business/displaystory. cfm? story_id=8313925 28. 1. 2010. Mulligan, T. (1986). A Critique of Milton Friedmans Essay The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits. Journal of Business Ethics (5), 265-269. Munstermann, T. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility Gabler. Skypala, P. (2008, 17. November). Time to payoff good corporate governance. Financial Times, S. 6. 28. 1. 2010. Wilcke, R. W. (2004).An Appropriate Ethical Model for Business and a Critique of Milton Friedmans Thesis. The self-supporting Review (2), 187-209. The Nobel Prize winner Milton Friedman was praised by The Economist (2006) as the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th centurypossibly of all of it. In 1970, he published an essay on the social responsibility of business in the New York Times Magazine. In his article, he explains in complex detail about the notion of social responsibility of business men within a corporate environment and their goal to increase profits.Indeed, at first glance, this quote seems to capture the mentality of many of the actors in the financial sector in our era. Banks and financial institutions are accused of acting unethically and only in their self-interest to increase profits along with brokers and investment bankers who are accused of primarily aiming high incentives and bonuses by selling unconscionably high-default assets. Scholars argued that corporate governance failings and lack of ethical behaviour were significant causes of the financial crisis of autumn 2008 (Skypala, 2008).This essay discusses the question whether the above statement made by famous economist Milton Friedman is still relevant in the context of business today and to what extent it is relating to the financial sector and in particular to the financial crisis of autumn 2008. In order to address this problem, it is important to discuss the fundamental view behind Friedmans i dea since it ineluctably to be fully understood and interpreted. He stated that the social responsibility of business was to maximize profits and to create value for stockholders within the bounds of the law.Furthermore, he thought that using corporate resources for purely altruistic purposes would be socialism. Moreover, corporations had no social responsibility other than to spend its resources to increase the profits of its investors since only investors as individuals could decide to engage in social contributions. Thus, he believed that the corporate executives, who were appointed by investors to make profits on investments, could not engage in social contributions using the corporate money. As a result, they could only do so as a private individual on their own behalf.Friedman devoted social responsibility to violating the interest of the managers employers. In other words, if managers invest in social responsible projects, they will harm the business since these investments will result in inefficiency and lost production leading to a reduction in shareholders wealth. His idea and the logic behind it have proven unconvincing to many scholars (Mulligan, 1986 Feldman, 2007 Wilcke, 2004). Indeed, several arguments can be shown which offset his idea. Firstly, his theory does not allow for the possibility that profits and social responsibility can ever exist together.It is necessary to consider the constraint noted by Jensen (2002) who indicated that it is logically impossible to maximize in more than one dimension at the same time unless the dimensions are monotone transformations of one another. This constraint implies that profits and social performance cannot be maximized simultaneously. That is why there is a trade-off between profits and social performance. Still, it does not mean that profit maximization and social performance cannot be congruent.In reality, there are many examples which show that both can coexist. Several reasons are to be mentioned here. Nowadays, banks and financial institutions are more aware of their role towards the society since they realize that they are an integral part of it. Furthermore, they notice that they can contribute positively to the environment and society with a positive effect on their reputation, creating a higher firm value. Furthermore, since numerous scandals of firms violating morality and ethics in the late 1990s and early 2000s (e. g.WorldCom and Enron) the significance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is increasing tremendously and included in the business culture of most of the financial institutions today. The concept of CSR means that corporations have ethical and moral responsibilities in addition to their responsibilities to earn a fair return for investors and comply with the law (Munstermann, 2007). So, almost every large corporation is increasingly investing to improve its performance on sustainability assets. Banks and financial institutions know that society is alw ays enlightened when it sees that a firm is engaged in charity and donating projects.While it is true that engagement in social responsible projects, for example donating for orphans of the developing countries means explicitly higher expenses and hence, reducing the profit, it has a long term profit as well. Engagement in donating projects has a positive effect on the reputation of firms, thus, affecting positively the consumer behavior of customers who will buy more products of firm, thus creating profit. Friedman also never considers the very real possibility that companies engaging in social responsible projects gain the support from the community and polity that might, otherwise, eventually turn against them.Nowadays, almost all companies working in the financial sector are in some kind of way socially engaged. Looking at websites of famous big banks like Deutsche Bank, JP Morgan, Goldman Sachs or Morgan Stanley, one can find headings of Corporate Social Responsibility througho ut the pages. Deutsche Bank has its own report on CSR for each year which reports engagement in AIDS projects in South Africa and support of education for children in India. JP Morgan reported an annual donation amount of $110 million for organization in 33 different countries and Goldman Sachs is actively involved in environmental projects.This shows that almost 4 decades after the famous essay of Friedman, companies do not follow his sole idea anymore but are or are forced to act socially responsible. On the other hand, a business should try to make profit since it is inherent in its nature and by definition (except for non-profit organization). According to the Business Dictionary, a business is an economic system in which goods and services are exchanged for one another or money. Every business requires some form of investment and a sufficient number of customers to whom its output can be sold at profit on a consistent basis. If a company does not make profit on a consistent a nd long-term basis, it will face financial distress and bankruptcy. Then, employees and workers will become unemployed which will affect the society negatively. For example, all the employees of banks going bankrupt in the financial crisis like Freddy Mac and Fanny Mae and Lehman Brothers were facing hardship. Hence, it is true that businesses are to a certain extent socially responsible to make profit in order to ensure job security and to create more jobs. This helps the society and improves the economy of the society.But Friedman does not consider the fact that if companies sole interest would be profit making, they can harm people and the surrounding environment. What if firms poison the water by disposing chemicals in rivers and sea disposing toxic that leads to illnesses and death of animals and human beings? Friedman also fails to argue whether profit-generating actions like selling nuclear bombs to terror organizations, or knowingly manufacturing and selling defective, heal th-threatening products count as social responsibility as long as the company makes profit.Evidently, in the financial sector there are not activities such as producing bombs or life-threatening drugs. Even though this sector cannot produce life-threatening products, it can create a value chain of unethical and careless activities that can damage the whole world as well. One example is the Asian financial crisis in 1997 where moral hazards were mentioned as a major cause. Moral hazards are negligent and fraudulent insureds (Baker, 2000). It also refers to situation that tempted otherwise good people.The problem with moral hazards in the Asian financial crisis was that Asian banks thought that they would receive implicit guarantees that they would be bailed out if they encountered financial distress. Hence, these banks and companies were much more speculative in their investments and kept investing increasingly. If the investments fail, they will not have to bear the cost since it wi ll be picked up by the government. They were playing with peoples money and did not act in the social interest of their customers.Instead, they were only focussing on making as much profit as possible. The result is known to everybody In 1997 the nations of East Asia experienced the worst economic crisis they have never seen before. Obviously, the latest and most discussed topic on morality in the two recent years has been the culpability of shareholders and banks along with board directors for failings that led to the financial crisis of 2008. On the one hand, the crisis can be blamed on mortgage brokers, investment bankers and banks executives. Skewed incentives and greed contributed too much of the crisis.For example, mortgage brokers generate sub-prime mortgages but were paid regardless of the outcome. That is why they were selling unscrupulously assets with high default risk to clueless customers in order to receive high commissions. Not to mention Wall Street Executives who we re focusing solely on how to increase their bonuses and remuneration packages. Also, Banks who took on these mortgages were accused of shoddy risk management and unethical behaviour, since they knew from the beginning that these subprime mortgages would eventually be securitized and removed from the banks balance sheet.Again, the originating banks got paid up front for processing the mortgages without having to retain part of the risk. Another factor is the misleading ratings of financial instruments credit agencies that were by far from independent. Arrangers of the secured assets were allowed to manipulate the creation of secured assets by mixing good assets with high risk assets to the point of getting a triple A-rating. If they did not get this rating, the assets were withdrawn, reconfigured and resubmitted.Since agencies are owned by banks, they were subjected to give best ratings to these dangerous assets and mortgage brokers knowing the risky idea behind those assets sold the m to unsuspecting investors. According to Friedman, every party involved in the actions mentioned above showed social responsibility since they did not care about their social responsibility to the world but only about maximizing their profits. Evidently, the aftermath of the American financial crisis has shown that the social responsibility of business is definitely not only to increase their profits.If banks, brokers and lenders, accountants, the government and important financial organization did not incorrectly assessed or even ignored the magnitude of the risks mentioned above, if managers and investment bankers were not greedy and showed herd investment behavior, it can be argued that the crisis could have been prevented. But the various parties acted immorally and socially irresponsible not caring about the social consequences of their actions. Consequently, the Asian crisis of 1997 and the global financial crisis of 2008 are two memorable examples that offset Friedmans idea. In conclusion, this paper has shown that Friedmans request of being socially responsible by focusing solely on increasing profits is nowadays theoretically not accepted by banks and financial institutions. In contrast, in the 21st century social responsible corresponds to the alignment of business operations with social and ethical values. It is seen as the key to beat the competitor and to ensure sustainable growth. But the latest financial crisis has shown that even though CSR is part of the business culture of the large corporations, the key players in the large corporations do not practice social responsibility in a proper manner.It seems that CSR and corporate governance are a compilation of words and rules that adds only little value to the everyday businesses. Money has made everybody blind. Everybody wanted to have a piece of the big cake leading them to lower their inhibition threshold. The social responsibility of businesses should not be increasing profit but focusing on what it really means in practice to encourage stewardship. As a matter of fact, banks and financial institutions first need to show social and ethical manner in order to prevent another disaster like the financial crisis of 2008.All in all, businesses need to focus on environmental and social issues in the arena of corporate responsibility since the society expects and demands responsibility of organizations. In fact, the law expects it as well. Banks and financial institutions are challenged after the aftermath of the financial crisis they have to find a way how to act in the best interest of stakeholders, society, the government and the environment, still being able to make sustainable profit. It is now a request from the society. ?References Baker, T. (2000). Insuring Morality.Business Dictionary. Definition of business. Homepage http//www. businessdictionary. com/definition/business. html 1. 2. 2010. Feldman, G. (2007). Putting Uncle Milton Friedman To Bed Reexamining Milton Fr iedmans Essay on the Social Responsibility of Business. Labor Studies Journal (32), 125-141. Jensen, M. C. (2002). Value maximization, stakeholder theory, and the corporate objective function. Business Ethics Quarterly, 2002 (12), 404-437. Milton Friedman, a giant among economist. The Economist. Verfugbar unter http//www. economist.com/business/displaystory. cfm? story_id=8313925 28. 1. 2010. Mulligan, T. (1986). A Critique of Milton Friedmans Essay The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits. Journal of Business Ethics (5), 265-269. Munstermann, T. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility Gabler. Skypala, P. (2008, 17. November). Time to reward good corporate governance. Financial Times, S. 6. 28. 1. 2010. Wilcke, R. W. (2004). An Appropriate Ethical Model for Business and a Critique of Milton Friedmans Thesis. The Independent Review (2), 187-209.