Saturday, August 31, 2019
Analyse Mrs BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s character in Ã¢â¬ËPride and Prejudice,Ã¢â¬â¢ by looking closely at her attitude and behaviour. Comment on what you think Mr Darcy and Elizabeth think of her, as well as your own views. Ã¢â¬ËShe was a woman of mean understanding, little information, and uncertain temper.Ã¢â¬â¢ Mrs Bennet, the mother of five girls; Jane, Elizabeth, Mary, Kitty and Lydia, most resembles her youngest daughter, Lydia; a shallow and flirtatious girl. Similarly, Mrs Bennet is very excitable and pronounces her fondness for Ã¢â¬Ëred coatsÃ¢â¬â¢ when she was LydiaÃ¢â¬â¢s age. This declaration of her affection is quite endearing and reveals Mrs BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s younger side. Mrs Bennet and Lydia are the pinnacles of the kind of characters who talk far too much and fuss about silly things. An example demonstrating this aspect of her character is how Mrs Bennet does not worry herself with the moral consequences of LydiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëinfamous elopementÃ¢â¬â¢ but fusses about trivial, frivolous things such as wedding clothes and Ã¢â¬Ëwhere the best warehouses are.Ã¢â¬â¢ This also demonstrates her stupidity and lack of insight into human nature which prevents her from realising how close Mrs Bingley comes to being outright rude. She believes that Mr BingleyÃ¢â¬â¢s sisters were Ã¢â¬Ëcharming women.Ã¢â¬â¢ Then goes on to comment, Ã¢â¬ËI never in my life saw anything more elegant then their dresses.Ã¢â¬â¢ Apart from being utterly wrong about them, she demonstrates perfectly her superficiality. She obviously is taken with the sisters because she sees them dressed incredibly ornately, and knows how rich they are, fogging her view of their personality. From the very beginning of the novel, Mrs Bennet comes across as a woman obsessed about marriage. The first event in the entire book is Mrs Bennet gossiping about a young man of good fortune, Mr Bingley, who has just moved into the area. Mrs Bennet is already planning for one of her daughters to marry Mr Bingley, even though she has never met him and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know anything about him apart from the he is Ã¢â¬Ëa single man of large fortune; four or five thousand a year.Ã¢â¬â¢ She says, Ã¢â¬ËWhat a fine thing for our girls!Ã¢â¬â¢ This clearly shows that Mrs Bennet aims to get her daughters married to wealthy men, not minding if her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s love them or if they are nice people or not. This demonstrates an element of foolishness especially as she of all people should know about the problems of such an Ã¢â¬Ëunsuccessful marriage.Ã¢â¬â¢ This, along with the evidence of Mrs BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s silliness seems to suggest that Mr Bennet married Mrs Bennet for convenience and for her looks rather than for love and her personality. Their love-hate relationship relies upon her gullibility and moodiness, and his love of teasing her which keeps Mr him going. Their barely surviving relationship should have shown Mrs Bennet the defects of a marriage for money and convenience, but she has in fact not learnt anything. She is so determined that she even wants Elizabeth to settle for marrying Mr Collins. However, her actions could be seen in a very different light. Perhaps it demonstrates her true love for her daughters. Maybe she wants them to marry rich because when Mr Bennet dies they will not inherit the house or any money because they are girls. The law says that the next male relative has to inherit everything. For this reason Mrs Bennet feels that she needs to secure her daughters future, making sure that they are settled. Mrs Bennet cannot accept not having her way and uses the blackmail, Ã¢â¬Ëyou have no compassion for my nervesÃ¢â¬â¢ when she is not granted what she wants. One instance when she uses this excuse is when Mr Bennet refuses to speak to Mr Bingley and invite him over. It is very important to Mrs Bennet that Mr Bingley comes over so that she can try and get one of her daughters married to him. But when Mr Bennet gets in the way of her plan by not visiting Mr Bingley, Mrs Bennet shows that she gets very annoyed. The fickle side of her character is displayed when Mr Bennet finally admits that he has seen Bingley. Mrs BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s mood changes very suddenly and she immediately gets excited and becomes happier. She says, Ã¢â¬ËHow good it was of you, my dear Mr Bennet,Ã¢â¬â¢ showing that she is superficial and that her feelings quickly change, cheering up at the thought of being able to marry off one of her daughters. Although it could also be seen that she is just a very determined person, whose resolution is to get her daughters married. Her determination, however, is sometimes taken a step too far, especially when Jane was invited to Netherfield. Jane requested the carriage to take her to the estate, but Mrs Bennet, excited by the chance for Jane to get to know Mr Bingley better, insisted that she Ã¢â¬Ëhad better go on horseback,Ã¢â¬â¢ because it seemed Ã¢â¬Ëlikely to rain.Ã¢â¬â¢ Mrs Bingley was in fact hoping that it would start to rain, so that Jane would have to stay at Netherfield, therefore having more time to get to know Bingley. Despite her lack of intelligence, this shows a very shrewd, scheming side to her character forming a plan to keep Jane at Netherfield. Furthermore, she could even be interpreted as uncaring. When it does indeed start to rain, Mrs BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s foolishness surfaces, as she comments on it being a Ã¢â¬Ëlucky ideaÃ¢â¬â¢ of hers to have sent Jane on horseback. She shows no regard for JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s health, but on the contrary, smugly praising herself for the success of her cun ning plan. On the surface, she does not seem bothered about her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s health, but is more concerned about the achievement of her lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s aim; getting her daughters married. In this respect she seems more aware of her responsibilities as a parent than her husband. Later, she finds out that Jane is unwell, but is not even slightly worried, saying, Ã¢â¬ËI am not afraid of her dying. People to not die of trifling colds. She will be taken good care of.Ã¢â¬â¢ Despite her unconcerned exterior, I think it is likely that deep down she really does care about her daughters, even though her number one priority is always to get her daughters married. Evidence of her deep down affection for her daughters is when she goes to Netherfield and Ã¢â¬Ëwould have been very miserableÃ¢â¬â¢ had she found Jane in any danger. Another redeeming feature of Mrs Bennet is that she is loyal, for example when she stuck up for Elizabeth after Mr Darcy had refused to dance with her. She tells Elizabeth to not dance with Darcy next time, even if he asks her. This is perhaps her way of comforting Elizabeth, because she probably understands that Elizabeth must have been offended. From this point onwards, Mrs BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s impression of Darcy changes completely from being Ã¢â¬Ëmuch handsomer than Mr BingleyÃ¢â¬â¢ to being a most disagreeable, horrid man, not at all worth pleasing.Ã¢â¬â¢ Her attitude towards him changes completely, and she forgets that she ever liked him in the first place. This reveals her fickleness and superficial judgement. When she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know him, she presumed that he was a really nice person just because she knew he was rich, but just as easily as she formed her first opinion of him, she changed her mind. Near the end of the novel she once again changes her opinion of Darcy. Although she has disliked him throughout the whole book, declaring that he is Ã¢â¬Ëso high and so conceited,Ã¢â¬â¢ she is overjoyed at the news of ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s engagement to him. She again changes her mind starting to really like him. The rest of the family were worried that she had made the wrong decisions about Darcy and may have been forced to marry him, but Mrs Bennet was not even slightly worried about that. She was just extremely happy that Elizabeth had found a rich husband, and that she only had two more daughters to get married. Her changeability is also brought to surface through her opinion of Mr Collins. Mr Collins is Mr BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s closest male relative, and so is destined to inherit Mr BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s house after his death. According to the law, girls could not inherit anything after their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death and so Mr and Mrs Bennet were relying on the fact that they would bear a son. Unfortunately, after conceiving five girls it became obvious that the possibility of having a son was very unlikely, by when it was already too late to start saving money to pay their daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s dowry and provide for them for the future. Mrs Bennet particularly didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like Mr Collins for this reason, as she blames him for inheriting her house, even though it is not his fault. Even before she has met him or found out anything about him, she has already decided that he is an Ã¢â¬Ëodious manÃ¢â¬â¢, out for what he can get. She goes on to say to Mr Bennet, Ã¢â¬ËIf I had been you, I should have tried long ago to do something or other about it,Ã¢â¬â¢ referring to the fact that his estate has been entailed to Mr Collins. From this, it is apparent that Mrs Bennet blames Mr Bennet for their problems, not being clever enough to understand that it is the law and that there is nothing Mr Bennet could do about it. She proclaims that she Ã¢â¬Ëhates false friends,Ã¢â¬â¢ which is very judgemental of her, but when she realises that Mr Collins wants to marry one of her daughters, her attitude completely changes. She is no longer hostile towards him, and forgets about her grudge against him. However, Elizabeth, being much more sensible than her mother, refuses the offer of marriage because she understands that marriages without love do not work. She has seen her mother and father Ã¢â¬ËpassingÃ¢â¬â¢ their lives, not really understanding each other and sees Ã¢â¬Ëthe defects of such a marriage.Ã¢â¬â¢ This decision agitates Mrs Bennet incredibly, who tells Mr Collins that Elizabeth Ã¢â¬Ëis a very headstrong, foolish girl and does not know her own interests; but I will make her know it.Ã¢â¬â¢ Mrs Bennets is very determined to have Elizabeth marry, and she suspects it would be quite had to get such as opinionated girl a husband. She is sure that she will be able to persuade or force Elizabeth to accept the offer of matrimony and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand Elizabeth not wanting to marry Mr Collins or that they are incompatible. The way she sees it is that he has money, and will soon inherit Longbourne, so Elizabeth should accept the offer of marriage. This again seem s to suggest that she does not care about her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness but is more consumed with her own security for the future. Mr Collins, having given up on Elizabeth, marries Charlotte Lucas which outrages Mrs Bennet. She irrationally holds Sir William and Lady Lucas responsible for the whole situation, insisting that they must have convinced Elizabeth not to marry Mr Collins, an absurd idea showing how paranoid she is. She often passes blame onto other people, not accepting any responsibility for anything that goes wrong. She is so Ã¢â¬ËvexedÃ¢â¬â¢ that she is impulsively rude to Sir William and Lady Lucas, spoiling their friendship because of her jealousy. Another aspect of her character is that she is very unsubtle and rude. Even though she spends most her time trying to find suitors for her daughters, she generally has the opposite effect and almost drives away suitors entirely. An illustration of her indiscretion is when she visits Jane at Netherfield. She believes that she is being very subtle in insulting Darcy, but in fact she is quite blatant with her insults and gives Darcy the impression that she is very loud in speech, foolish and insensitive. He is also offended by her lack of breeding and dislikes her since their first meeting at the Ball. He was annoyed at the way that Mrs Bennet would make judgements about people even without knowing them. She declares Mr Darcy to be Ã¢â¬ËThe proudest, most disagreeable man in the world.Ã¢â¬â¢ Without knowing him, Mrs Bennet had already made out his character, which annoyed him greatly. He also didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like the way that he would talk loudly about other people, thinking that this was insensitive and completely demonstrated her lack of breeding. He also considers her to be very foolish, and in his letter to Elizabeth he wrote that he tried to break Bingley and Jane up because of their class difference. He also commented on the fact that their mother was foolish, and so he could not let Bingley marry Jane. Elizabeth also considers her mother to be an embarrassment and very foolish. She thinks that her mother is insensitive and not very intelligent for example, when she sent Jane to Netherfield on horseback. Elizabeth was extremely worried about Jane and walked all the way to Netherfield to visit her sister. Her mother embarrasses her on many occasions such as when her mother misunderstands Mr DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s comment on country people and reveals hostility towards him. This shows a lack of breeding and Elizabeth Ã¢â¬Ëblushes for her mother,Ã¢â¬â¢ trying to change the subject. The extreme diffence in character and sense between Elizabeth and Mrs Bennet makes Mrs Bennet look even more foolish and stupid. Mrs Bennet is like a literary caricature of an interfering matchmaker. Her faults are magnified to excessive proportions, making her character almost funny and therefore providing comic relief at tense moments in the play. Her role in the play is to be an obstacle which Darcy needs to overcome and accept in order to show that he truly loves Elizabeth. This is very difficult for Darcy as she is almost his complete opposite. She is silly, obsessive, hysterical and tactless, but in the end he accepts her because of his love for Elizabeth. In conclusion, Elizabeth, Mr Darcy and the reader may feel that Mrs Bennet is a foolish, insensitive woman, appearing to be loud, superficial and quickly irritated, but equally rapidly calmed down. This is because, throughout the novel, Jane Austin allows her more negative aspects to surface at different times throughout the novel by emphasising them through her words and actions. However, I feel that she is in fact a very caring and affectionate mother, who always has her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s best interests at heart. Yet, this side of her personality is not often portrayed, forcing Mrs Bennet to be seen as an interfering, thoughtless woman.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Mainland China is rooted in more than 4,000 years of rich Chinese cultures and history. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s known for their lives, travel, history, business and food, their people and customs. Traditional Kung Fu is as much of the culture of china according to statistics. The Chinese people have shared a common culture longer than any other groups on earth. China is one of the cradles of the human race. For thousands of years the culture of china has attract and moved many people from all over the world, being so unique and one-of-a-kind as well as elegant and inspiring. The Chinese culture, a culture that has evolved for thousands and thousands of years contains rare beauty and enchanted with history variously as an ancient civilization extending over a large area in East Asia. [pic] In order to effectively examine China we need to first understand what their culture is about. Culture is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"societyÃ¢â¬â¢s shared and socially transmitted its ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and which generate behavior that is reflected in that behaviorÃ¢â¬ . There are five major characteristics of culture, they are that; Culture is shared, Ã¢â¬Å"one shared element found in all cultures is an understanding in regard to gender roles, which are the roles a particular culture assigns to men and womenÃ¢â¬ . The second characteristic is Ã¢â¬Å"Culture is learned, not biologically inherited. The process whereby culture is passed from one generation to the next. The third is Ã¢â¬Å"symbols. Much of human behavior is mediated by symbolsÃ¢â¬âsigns, sounds, emblems, and other things that represent meaningful concepts. Ã¢â¬ The forth is that Ã¢â¬Å"Culture is integrated. The foundation of culture includes three structural elements that work together to keep the culture strong: An infrastructure provides the basic necessities of life, a social structure determines how people interact with one another, and a superstructure, or worldview, provides a belief system that helps people identify themselves, their society, and the world around them. Ã¢â¬ Lastly, Ã¢â¬Å"Culture is dynamic. Chinese arts and crafts, including painting, calligraphy, operas and silk. During these four or five thousand years of development, china mainly live on the five common cereals and vegetables and added by a small supply of meat which is radiated to the advance of culinary skills and early civilization of the country. When one element within the system shifts, the entire system shifts to accommodate it. Ã¢â¬ East Asian cultures have many similarities in religious beliefs, family social networks, diet and education. Modern China differs greatly in government. They have maintained a communist state and resisted Westernization. This is not the case with the rest of the Far East. Western culture appears to be a driving force behind most of modern East Asian culture. [pic] China has a very diverse geographical and urban landscape. Within ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s borders lies the tallest peak in the world, Mount Everest, it is just one of many mountains that make up the Himalayan mountain range in the northern region of China. China also boasts the third longest river in the world with South ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Yangtze River which is approximately 3,400 miles long. China has over 8,700 miles of coastline, and has many plains and valleys throughout its nearly 12,400 square miles of frontier land. The vast landscape has dwellings that vary anywhere from small villages to large cities and metropolitan areas. China also has one of the largest man-made structures in the world, the Great wall; it is so large that it is visible from outer space. Ã¢â¬Å"In terms of climate, China may be divided between the humid eastern region and the dry west. The humid east can be further subdivided between the warm and humid south and southeast and the temperate-to-cool, moderately humid north and northeast. Much of the humid eastern region of China exhibits a monsoonal pattern of temperature and precipitation. In a monsoon climate, the warm summer months are typically the months of maximum precipitation. Ã¢â¬ ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s population exceeds 1 billion, Ã¢â¬Å"more than 500 million people live in and around cities in China, according to the 1990 census. There are more urban dwellers in China than are found in either the United States or Russia. Some of the cities are quite large. Shanghai, for example, has more than 7 million people; Beijing has more than 6 million, and Tianjin more than 5 million. Many cities have more than 1 million people each. Ã¢â¬ (ComptonÃ¢â¬â¢s Living Encyclopedia) ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s cities are expanding rapidly. The government is attempting to regulate urban growth in order to avoid such problems as congestion, overcrowding, slum development, and unemployment. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s government is a PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic; the main organs of the government are under Communist party control. The head of state in China is the Ã¢â¬Å"PremierÃ¢â¬ . The population of China is and has been a strain on the countries resources; because of this the government has interjected itself into the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s family planning. Ã¢â¬Å"ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s family planning policy combines government guidance with the wishes of the masses. The basic requirements of family planning are late marriages and late child-bearing, so as to have fewer, but healthier, babies, especially one child per couple. But a flexible family planning policy is adopted for rural people and ethnic minorities; in rural areas, couples may have second baby in exceptional cases, but must wait several years after the birth of the first child. Ã¢â¬ Chinese people have the tradition of respecting the old and loving the young. Though many young couples do not live with their parents, they maintain close contact with them. Grown up children have the duty to support and help their parents. The Chinese people attach great importance to relations between family members and relatives, and cherish their parents, children, brothers and sisters, uncles, aunts and other relatives. Communication among the people of China can be challenging due to the numerous written and spoken languages of the country. Ã¢â¬Å"The Han people have their own spoken and written language. Chinese belongs to the Han-Tibetan language family. It is the most commonly used language in China, and one of the most commonly used languages in the world. All of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s 55 minority people have their own languages, except the Hui and Manchu, who use Chinese; 23 of these have a written form. Ã¢â¬ Economically China has changed considerably since it became a communist state in 1949, since the founding of New China, especially in the 20 years after the start of reform and opening to the outside world in 1978. China has made great achievements in economic construction and social development. China instituted multiple financial plans that has allowed for outward economic growth and modernization. Ã¢â¬Å" There are three major religious in china; Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism, although Confucianism is a school of philosophy than a religion, some turn to Taoism when they find themselves frustrated and many turn to Buddhism even if they never read the sutures beliefs. Chinese people do not have a strong religious inclination but despite this the three main faiths. China is proud of the many people, The Hui, Uygur, Kazak, Kirgiz, Tatar, Ozbek, Tajik, Dongxiang, Salar, and Bonan people adhere to Islam; the Tibetan Buddhism, and the Dai, Blang and Deang to Theravada Buddhism. Ã¢â¬ Buddhism was first introduced to China from India in the first century A. D. , becoming increasingly popular after the fourth century. Tibetan Buddhism, or Lamaism as it is sometimes called, is found primarily in Tibet and Inner Mongolia. War and the military have been a central role in the shaping of modern Chinese history; armed struggle has played an important part. Ã¢â¬Å"The majority of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s imperial dynasties rose and fell due to success or defeat upon the battlefield. The 20th century saw the conflict between Nationalist and Communist forces that resulted in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s divided China: the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and Taiwan. It also witnessed ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention in the Korean War and border clashes with its neighbors India, the Soviet Union, and Vietnam. Ã¢â¬ (Worthing) Many factors have led to the perceived military threat known as China. These factors have figured decisively in the rise and fall of imperial dynasties, the suppression of internal revolts, the emergence of revolutionary movements, and the conduct of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign relations, the development of political parties, the structure of governments, the rise of nationalism and the drive for modernization, all of which have driven the worlds perception of China emerging as a 21st-century military and economic power. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s past has aided in shaping much of the countries core values, but economically a western view on commerce and technology has been adapted. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to do all outward dealing on their own terms has allowed them to be a major player in the world marketplace. China is self sufficient and goal oriented. They are a country diverse in belief systems yet this does not appear to affect the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of nationalism. China is a superpower that no country should overlook. The Chinese culture is solely based on the necessities of ancient Chinese culture. Which are: food, clothing, housing, transportation and, education. These elements are the foundations that make up their society, tradition and beliefs. Their beliefs, not only help shape their economic climate, it also influenced their military. China has the longest period of continuous development of military culture of any civilization in world history. China also had one of the most powerful and advanced military for almost 2000 years until the eighteenth century. One of the greatest influences of military thought was the book Ã¢â¬Å"The Art of WarÃ¢â¬ by Sun TzuÃ¢â¬â¢s. Of course a lot has changed since the 18th century. The ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s modern military share some of the same values of U. S. military. The 3 main beliefs, Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism still play a major role in their decision making process. However, similar to the U. S. politics plays a major role overall. If we were to come in contact with any Chinese forces we must remember what is sacred to them. While most of us place value on religion from a Ã¢â¬Å"supernatural forceÃ¢â¬ . The Chinese listen and respect their elders for wisdom and guidance. Here is a chart that shows you the difference between Chinese cultures vs. American culture: | |Chinese |Americans | |Conception Of the Self |Collectivist: Higher value placed on group|Individualist: Higher value placed on | | |cooperation and individual modesty. |self-reliance. Self-promotion is more | | | |accepted. High value placed on Ã¢â¬Å"freedomÃ¢â¬ | | | |from externally imposed constraints. | |Social Relationships |Formal, hierarchical. People most |Informal, egalitarian. People most | | |comfortable in the presence of a hierarchy|comfortable with their social equals; | | |in which they know their position and the |importance of social rankings minimized. | | |customs/rules for behavior in the | | | |situation. | | |Friendship |Small numbers of close, lifelong friends |Large collection of Ã¢â¬Å"friendsÃ¢â¬ and | | |who feel deeply obligated to give each |acquaintances which changes over time and | | |other whatever help might seem required. |involves only limited mutual obligations. | |Obligation |Relationships with other people involve |People avoid interdependent relationships | | |reciprocal obligations. |and situations that might entail long-term | | | |obligations. | |Task vs. Relationship |Relationship-oriented: Maintaining a |Task-oriented. Relationships are less | |Orientation |harmonious relationship has priority over |important than getting the work done. | | |accomplishing tasks. | | |Harmony vs. |Avoid direct confrontation, open |Willing to confront directly, criticize, | |Ã¢â¬ TruthÃ¢â¬ |criticism, and controversial topics. |discuss controversial topics, and press | | |Concern maintaining harmony and with |personal opinions about what they consider | | |Ã¢â¬ face. Ã¢â¬ |Ã¢â¬ the truth. Little concern with Ã¢â¬Å"face. Ã¢â¬ | |Role of laws, rules, and |More faith in personal relationships than |Written rules presumably apply to everyone | |regulations |in written rules and procedures for |and are assumed to produce fair, reasonable| | |structuring interactions. |procedures and decisions. | |Time Consciousness |Relatively more attention to the past and |Less interested in the past; eye on | | |to the longer-term future. |near-term future. | |Ascribed vs. Achieved |Traditionally, a personÃ¢â¬â¢s status in the |PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s status is based mainly on their | |Status |society was based importantly on inherited|own achievements, including education | | |characteristics such as age, gender, and |obtained and level of success realized in | | |family. This is changing. |their line of work. | In order for America to be successful we must consider our differences and find a common ground. Knowing that there is a cultural gap can and will affect unit operations but we can and will be successful if we understand that we do not live in this world alone.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Music has a way of adding life and energy to any performance, many musicals, commercials, films, live shows, and concerts sweeping people off of their feet by the colorful compositions of the musicians. In adding depth and dimension to characters, music has a way of bringing emotions to surface through the use of sound, meaningful beats and rhythms pulsing audible story tales into the ears and souls of the performers and audience members. Louder and more intense sounds, like deep booming, have the effect of grounding the music, while softer and often higher pitched compositions, like gentle piping, have the effect of lifting the music. Feelings such as anticipation, anger, joy, sorrow, peace, and frustration can be communicated through sound, and people are in tune with the ways in which music arouses them. These various types of sounds are produced by a wide range of unique instruments, including horns, drums, and strings. Each distinct instrument and sound has a part to play in the overall composition of the music, every element bringing a certain kind of meaning and emotionality to the overall performance. In experiencing the performance of the PirateÃ¢â¬â¢s Dinner Adventure, one is thrust into a historical world of swashbuckling action, pirates taking to the stage, in boats and though water, in the battle for the ship of treasures and the princess. Each part of the musical composition has meaning and purpose, the deeper horns and drums creating a sense of anticipation and fear, a mixture of expectation and dread. This booming introduction is followed by the appearance of pirates on the stage, creeping through the water and floating in on their small boats, each one determined to fight to the finish and win the battle for riches and the lovely woman. This slow beating of the drums is threaded through with low to medium pitched horns, such as tubas, leading the skulking pirates closer to their final goal, the wealthy ship full of gold and the fine girl. Some pirates pop up above the water with knives in their mouths, surprising the audience, as the drums beat out in almost perfect synchronicity with their small splashes, and the leisurely gliding boats fill the viewers with dread as the music pipes out the horns, their stealthy movements and whispers carried by each rich tune. When the pirates raid the ship, the music explodes and quickens, higher pitched horns, such as trumpets, pound out the action of the climbing men, rope swinging pirates, firing canons, and sword fighting bandits. The soldiers lose control of their ship, and the music floods with horns, the shrill cries of the instruments sounding out the struggles and screams of a waterborne battlefield. The knives flying through the air and the pieces of the ship falling down onto the deck and into the water are pierced with drumming, and the pushing and falling people, the fighters, are suspended in a torrent of drumming and horns, each instrument pulsing out a rhythm which is busied yet integrated, hectic but blended to suit the frantic interweaving of battle. The music calms and the strings enter into the composition when the soldiers finally take control of their ship once again, having banished the pirates from the area, and having reclaimed their treasure and their princess. With the brash and brazen pirates effectively cast out, the peaceful and gliding sounds of the violins, flutes, and chimes bringing the culmination of the show to a soft and quiet ending. These higher pitched instruments are most effective when played lightly, the soothing tinkling of these sweet instruments resembling the gentle nature of the female, and symbolizing the safety of the princess and the treasure. This performance was extremely rich in musical emotionality, each instrument and sound bringing a certain and unique element of beauty and meaning to the piece. Initiating into the slow, deep beginning of anticipation, moving through the wild and loud rhythmic racket of battle, and culminating with the soft and gentle high sounds of peace was a poignant experience rich with significance. The magnificence of the deep drumbeat and shallow tubas was followed by the excited piping of trumpeters and quicker beats, finally cascading into the chiming flow of the violins and flutes. A story can be effective without the use of music, but telling a tale interwoven with melodies can capture elements of the heart and soul through the use of a comprehensive and engaging harmony of sounds.
Analyze a photogrpah - Essay Example The figure of Ophelia has long been symbolic of the silencing of women in literature and in the larger context of society itself. Crewdson uses the same principle to create his work. It is interesting to note that the artistic representations of Ophelia changes media over time as well. Starting from the famous oil on canvas painting of Ophelia by John Everett Millais, the more haunting painting of Ophelia by Pierre Auguste Cot to the rich, pastoral representation by painter Henry Nelson OÃ¢â¬â¢ Neil, the image of the manic depressive drowning herself seemed to have struck a chord with several artists over the ages. Crewdson recognises this timeless quality of the character and chooses to interpret it himself also but in the different, more contemporary, medium of film. Studying the picture closely reveals how the same motif of female suppression persists in history. Here, the scene is not a forest and a river, but a regular drawing room. The drawing room itself, although not overtl y outrageous, is extremely surrealistic and eerie in some ways. The most visible evidence of its unnatural condition, of course, is the water that appears to flood the room. The still water with the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s hand partly submerged in it appears almost frozen and lends the entire scene a rigid, menacing quality. The drawing room is heavily furnished, almost stifling.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
External Recruiting - Article Example The ideal UPS of these people is that they must love talking and must be good talkers whether in one-on-one situation or giving a public talk. It is the recruiter who provides first impression of the firm to potential employees and therefore, he should be able to communicate the job in a desirable manner. He should be seen as someone who is not exaggerating and is telling the features of the job based on his experiences in the situation. Therefore, firms should guide their recruiters through in-house training regiment where they should acquaint their recruiters with the firm's goals, core values and recruiting strategies. Recruiters should also be taught follow-up skills which will be helpful in answering the questions asked by prospective employees. Once all of this is done, recruiters should be confident enough to increase the quantity of quality people in the firm. In the end, the author says that it is imperative that recruiters should go through these processes to meet the organ ization's future staffing needs. This article gives us insight on how the modern firms look at the process of recruiting and the selecting the right recruiter. A recruiter is not someone who has to just fill forms and interview possible candidates.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Intellectual propert law - Essay Example Moreover, BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s business was apparently called Ã¢â¬Å"BettyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ from the period spanning 1986 to 1994. However, the name Ã¢â¬Å"BettyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ was never officially trademarked, at least the facts do not indicate that it was. If the name was trademarked, then obviously Betty would have a stronger case. However, Betty might have a cause of action for passing off. Passing off, traditionally a tort that referred to attempting to represent oneÃ¢â¬â¢s goods as the goods of somebody else, has the modern definition of using a personÃ¢â¬â¢s goodwill and reputation in an attempt to benefit oneself, and, in the process, injuring the original personÃ¢â¬â¢s good name, reputation and connections (Taittinger and others v. Allbev Ltd. and others  4 All ER 75). There are five elements in the tort of passing off, and they are Ã¢â¬Å"1. A misrepresentation 2. Made by a trader in the course of trade, 3. To prospective customers of his or ultimate consumers of good s or services supplied by him 4. Which is calculated to injure the business or goodwill of another trader (in the sense that this is a reasonably foreseeable consequence and 5. Which causes actual damage to a business of goodwill of the trade by whom the action is brought or will probably do so (Erven Warnick BV v. J Townend & Sons (Hull) Ltd.  2 All ER 927). In examining these elements, it is unsure whether Betty can prevail on the tort of passing off. The first element is that there must be a misrepresentation. Calling her company Ã¢â¬Å"BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s Produce,Ã¢â¬ when Jenny had previously worked for Betty for a long period of time, and BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s business was known as Ã¢â¬Å"BettyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ for a number of years would certainly seem as if Jenny is misrepresenting her own produce as BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s. Jenny was no doubt highly associated with Betty in the mind of the consumers and the people to whom Betty catered, so those people probably would assume that Jenny w as still with Betty, and that JennyÃ¢â¬â¢s produce was BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s produce. Jenny would be using BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s name in the course of trade and to prospective customers, and these same customers were also BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s customers, so those elements are satisfied as well. Whether it was calculated to damage the goodwill of Betty is a question for which there is no clear answer. Certainly it seems that Jenny was attempting to capitalize on BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s goodwill and reputation, but whether or not she wanted to injure Betty is questionable. However, as long as damage to JennyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation is reasonably foreseeable, this element is satisfied as well. Betty worked hard to establish a firm reputation for her products. JennyÃ¢â¬â¢s products might not have the same standard. If JennyÃ¢â¬â¢s products are not the same standard as BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s products, then Jenny would be damaging BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. Ã¢â¬Å"a misrepresentation by B that his inferior goods are of a su perior quality, which is that of AÃ¢â¬â¢s goods, whereby people buy BÃ¢â¬â¢s goods instead of AÃ¢â¬â¢s, is actionableÃ¢â¬ (Reckitt and Colman Products Ltd. v Borden Inc. and Others,  1 All ER 873). Jenny was clearly trying to represent her products as BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s products, in an effort to get these restaurants to buy her products instead of BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s products, so this element is satisfied as well. As to the final element, that the passing off causes actual damage to BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation, actionable damage can be that which is gradual depreciation to the reputation that Betty
Monday, August 26, 2019
Writing Fundmentals - Essay Example In the first paragraph, Ruth Winter is only five years old. After a year, she joins school in the second paragraph, and she is now six years old. The third paragraph in this essay is set during the summer ofÃ the authorsÃ second grade, which means that Winter is seven years old, and a few months shy off eight years. The fourth paragraph in the essay is set when Winter is in her third grade of school, which puts her age at eight years. In the fifth paragraph, Winter is ten years old while she attains the age of eleven years and she is inÃ her high school education in the sixth paragraph. In the final paragraph, Winter is eighteen years old. The article by Roach may be a little disturbing, but it is also fascinating in the same breathe. In this case, the author visits a medical facility where dead bodies are donated for research. Roach uses humor to explain the crucial role that these dead bodies playÃ sinceÃ surgeons use them to practiceÃ before an actual brain surgery, which highlights the critical role of the heads of the dead bodies in surgical procedures to save
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Strateg.management - Essay Example While in the first two waves, which gave birth to many of the old economy products, the innovation led to tangible goods that could be valued as could the enterprises that produced them. The third wave of IT revolution, however, the product was an intangible commodity - knowledge - that could be shared within and across organizations beyond boundaries. While the potential of the growth of these IT companies was deemed to be enormous, as was evident from the early signals of growth demonstrated by these companies, the stock markets in the USA and Europe reacted far more dramatically between 1990 and 2001. Since most of the owners of the new economy companies were young and first-generation entrepreneurs, there was no way to value the companies on the basis of their net worth. Most of these companies spent enormous amounts of capital, often funded by venture capital, on the hope of much faster growth of future earnings, which were inherently uncertain. As a result, there was a large do se of speculative investments in the stock markets, much of it from the household sector, and the speculative bubble crashed in 2001. In this paper, I will discuss the various aspects in which the valuation of the new economy companies were different from that of the old economy companies by the capital market, demonstrating a dual approach in its valuation process. Intangible inputs and products As Al Gore, Vice President of the United States said at the Microsoft Summit in 1997, "In the Old Economy, the value of a company was mostly in its hard assets - its buildings, machines and physical equipment. In the New Economy, the value of a company derives more from its intangibles - its human capital, intellectual capital, brainpower and heart. In a market economy, it's no surprise that markets themselves have begun to recognize the potent power of intangibles. It's one reason that net asset values of companies are so often well below their market capitalization" (quoted in Bond & Cummins, 2000). The above quote reflects the buoyant mood that policymakers saw the boom in the New Economy in late 1990s. The New Economy was expected to herald in a new growth trajectory on the basis of intangible assets of the company while the product as well was intangible. Hence, the stock markets valued the New Economy in a grossly different manner than it did the Old Economy. While the capital markets valued the Old Economy on the basis of the replacement cost of capital, as was the basis of the Tobin's Q model, the New Economy was valued on the basis of the intangible assets like human and intellectual capital (Bond & Cummins, 2000). Valuation and Replacement cost of capital In theory, the stock market is considered an efficient one when the stock prices reflect the fundamentals of the company accurately. That is, for an efficient stock market, the market value of a company is exactly equal to its fundamental value, defined as the expected present discount value of future payments to the shareholders (Bond & Cummins, 2000). From this, derives the Tobin's Q ratio, that is market valuation to the replacement cost of capital, the latter discounting market power and adjustment costs, which should be 1 for an efficient market. For an
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Companies in GCC - Research Paper Example The performance analysis of all these companies and recommendations will be presented in a detailed manner in this report. The Business plan highlights the performance analysis of the companies in UAE through the balance sheet, the income statement and stock market movement of the companies such as Dana Gas, Sorouh, Tabreed, Emirate Islamic bank and Orient insurance (The Wall Street Journal, 2014). Among these, Dana Gas is a company which functions independently and deals in gas. The major private shareholder in this company is Crescent Petroleum . Sorouh, on the other hand is the largest developer in the real estate business of UAE. Tabreed is another company for which detailed performance analysis will be conducted. It is a company based in Abu- Dhabi which is associated in the business of district cooling. Emirates Islamic Bank is the leading bank in Middle East and has a huge asset base (The Wall Street Journal, 2014). There will be analysis of the performance of Orient insurance as well, which is a pioneer in the insurance business. They provide security for covering all kinds of risks (The Wall St reet Journal, 2014). The current assets of the company like inventories increased in 2012 to USD 54 million from USD 53 million in 2011. The increase in the inventories is a negative indication to the company and should be curbed. A high rate of inventory denotes low rate of turnover of the same. This adds to the cost of the company in terms of storage (Terterov, 2006). Again, through the performance analysis of the current assets it can be noticed that there is an increase in the trade receivables in the year 2012, as compared to the year 2011. There is increase in the trade receivables from USD 501 million in 2011 to USD 670 million, which is a positive sign (Bloomberg, 2012). A high rate of return from the debtors of the company is always beneficial to maintain the liquidity position. From the analysis of the equity and
Friday, August 23, 2019
Quantitative Analysis - Assignment Example The study aims at both determining the effects of poverty on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s psychology and how the effects subsequently influence different behaviours as well as to determine effects of a chaotic environment on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cortisol. This study involves families of children less than four years old selected from two geographical regions that report high poverty rates and which are Eastern North Carolina and Central Pennsylvania. A sample of 1292 children and families who live in the geographical areas are selected by the researchers for this study (p. 2669). Participants are carefully selected from disadvantaged families and sample selection is carried out over a twelve months period so as to ensure selection of a highly representative sample that improves the quality of the research findings, 51% of the children are male and 43% of the sampled children are African American (Blair et. all, 2013 p. 2669). Income-to-need ration is used to measure the levels of poverty for the different families that are used in this study which is calculated during every visit and a ratio of 1 or less than 1 qualifies a family for this study while Chaos in the household are measured using the number of changes in the primary and secondary caregiver, the number of people in the household as well as the number of moves in the house. All these are weighted to give an aggregate of the level of disorganization and chaos in the household by measuring the childÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour and temperaments using a predetermined scale with scales from 1-10 (p 2669) included in the question that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s parent fills during every visit by the researchers. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence is measured using a predetermined formula foe intelligence quotient, which is important in determining the childÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive abilities. However, this questionnaire on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence is administered when the child is thirty six months old. All
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Leadership Principles Essay Abstract This paper explores the definition of leadership, and how applying the principles of leadership can yield more success for teams in the workplace. It also serves to further explore personality self-evaluation and how personality traits help to define an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership likely traits and strengths. Reference will be made to personality assessments such as the Ã¢â¬Å"Meyers-Briggs Type IndicatorÃ¢â¬ (MBTI) and the Ã¢â¬Å"Big-Five Approach to Personality AssessmentÃ¢â¬ , and what those assessments imply about an individual. While individuals tend to demonstrate particular trends and traits in relation to the personality assessments, the results are not absolute, and in no way offer definitive information about an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s specific characteristics (Scholl 2002). Detailed exploration of particular aspects and principles will yield a more refined working knowledge of leadership and practical applications in the workplace, specifically self-awareness and personal recognition of individual characteristics and learning styles. A summary with findings and conclusions will conclude the paper. Leadership Leadership is the ability to get a group to achieve greater accomplishments and achievements than the sum of individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ actions. Leadership means taking advantage of opportunities and finding ways to improve upon a situation, whether or not someone else gave you the empowerment to accomplish those goals (Blanchard, Fowler, and Hawkins, 2005, p. 15). Leaders have the innate ability to observe a scenario, realize what needs to happen to realize results, seize the moment and guide others to work together to accomplish a common goal. Ultimately, Ã¢â¬Å"a leader is anyone who can give you the support and direction you need to achieve your goal.Ã¢â¬ (Blanchard et al, 2005, 133). Self-Evaluation Every person is an individual, and as individuals they naturally have unique personality traits that affect how they interact and interact with others in the world. Personal assessment is a valuable tool that allows an individual to realize their own unique traits and tendencies, allowing them to be aware of precognitive tendencies that they might demonstrate in given situations. For me personally, I was assessed using the MBTI method to be an introvert, who tends to be slightly sensing, somewhat thinking, and strongly judging (https://www.typefocus.com). At first, I took some offence to being categorized in this method, but after researching the general description of my personality, as well as specific definitions of the preference categories, I came to realize that this information would ultimately empower me to become a stronger and more capable leader in the future. A summary of careers suggest that I could become a strong manager that would enjoy a workplace where I could use m y knowledge and organizational skills. I am likely to enjoy occupations that involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. (https://www.typefocus.com). I am able to ascertain that my personality traits suggest I am a person who is capable of teaching others my knowledge and other applicable skills. I am a leader who possesses both information power as well as expert power (Yukl, 2011, p. 193) Another assessment that helped me to understand about my character was the Big-Five Approach to Personality Assessment (Scholl, 2002). The Big-Five assessment provided five factors, along with several more specific traits and facets that help individuals understand and recognize concerning their personality. The five factors, or domains, are neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. My low scoring on the neuroticism portion suggests that I am a confident, optimistic individual who is even tempered and relaxed; able to face stressful situations without becoming upset (Scholl, 2002). I had a low extraversion score, suggesting that I am reserved and interpersonally formal; an independent thinker rather than a follower (Scholl, 2002). In the domain of openness, my score was almost dead center, suggesting that I do not have strong tendencies one way or the other (Scholl, 2002). I believe that this suggests that my reaction depends on the situation and the environment surrounding it. I can be curious and imaginative about certain situations, but cautious and conservative for others. Personal morals and ethics strongly influence my openness, whereas I am open to new ideas and thinking about scenarios, as long as they do not violate my personal ethical standards. For agreeableness, my slightly higher than center score suggests that I am for the most part a generous, trusting person who is sympathetic to others. At the same time, I can be suspicious and impatient with those who have disappointed me in the past. This is one aspect that I need to be aware of my past, and how it influences my present and future. I once had an assistant who I trusted complicity attempt to stage a mutiny to attempt to remove me from my position. Thankfully, my employees had enough ethical standards to make me aware of the decision, so that I could deal with the situation through the proper channels. However, as a result of that situation I have found it much more difficult to trust subordinates, and I tend to be suspicious of actions that could be viewed as disloyal and insubordinate to me as a manager and leader. For the final domain, conscientiousness, my score was again dead center, but the results for this particular section made me think more deeply about myself. I had always thought that I demonstrated the traits associated with someone who scores high for conscientiousness, but I must accept the fact that I may have tendencies that are normally for those scoring low. For me to be successful, I must constantly be aware of these traits, and be able to recognize and adjust my actions when I act in a way that is not conscientious. The guidelines representing how to promote emotional intelligence in the workplace (https://www.eiconsortium.org) suggested twenty-two steps to assess the situation, instigate change, then transfer power and evaluate how everything worked. The company I formerly worked for must have been influenced by these guidelines, as I had been introduced to the process years ago, and was a continual body of work for me as a retail manager. For every employee that was hired, whether full or part time, I had to assess them as an employee, and implement a training program that would yield the best results for the company. Teaching has always been a passion of mine, and I enjoyed showing how every employee had an impact on our store, and their effort and personal pride could have far reaching impact on our daily success, both for sales and customer satisfaction. The process of encouraging transfer and maintenance ofÃ change was mainly designated for the management team, but that was an essential process for our team. I simply could not do it alone: I needed every member of the management to perform to their potential, so that we could function as a team, and each member of management would learn and better their skills for the next advancement opportunity that might come along. It was through this process that I was able to train and advance several members of management, many of whom are now store managers with their own stores to run. Leadership Style My personal leadership style is supportive leadership. I will always try to empower others around me to be aware of their potential, and support them when they need assistance. As Yukl suggests, I use my interpersonal skills to be supportive and compassionate with others as they try to get their work done (Yukl, 2011, p. 64). I attempt to learn more about an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality, so that I can find a way to best assist them in their own growth and leadership potential. That requires a being a coach who is sometimes there to boost their confidence, and at other times kick them in the rear when they are not putting forth their best effort. At the same time, I realize that it is not possible to provide the motivation for everyone. Every individual has different motivations, and ultimately must take responsibility for creating their own work environment (Blanchard et al, 2005, p.29). I am aware that to be a successful leader, I need to be able to not only empower others, but to show them how to be leaders unto themselves. Every individual needs to be aware of their own strengths and powers before they can lead themselves (Blanchard et al, 2005, p.62), and I plan help others find their way to lead themselves, and ultimately lead others to success. References Blanchard, K., Fowler, S., Hawkins, L. (2005). Self Leadership and the One Minute Manager: Increasing Effectiveness Through Situational Self Leadership. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishing, Inc. Buckingham, Marcus (2005). The One Thing You Need to KnowÃ¢â¬ ¦About Great Managing, Great Leading, and Sustained Individual Success. New York, NY: Free Press. Lencioni, Patrick (2002). The Five Dysfunctions of a Team: A Leadership Fable. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Scholl, Richard (2002). Dispositions: The Big 5 Personality Assessment. Retrieved from University of Rhode Island, Labor Research Center Web site: http://www.uri.edu/research/lrc/scholl/webnotes/Dispositions_Big_5.htm Yukl, Gary (2011). Leadership In Organizations, Eighth Edition. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Global Perspective on Health Policy Essay The controversial issue of healthcare coverage for all individuals is an ethical and moral issue that Americans struggle with and as socially proactive as they are on there are many issues arising of it. Healthcare is not only about health and coverage but the major issue is about funding, what can be funded and what cannot be funded and how is going to be funded. Universal healthcare in other countries offers insight into some of the biggest issues and best alternatives for providing healthcare to all and to resolve the health care rising cost. The ethical issue of health care has led to the Accountable Care Act or Obama Care policy development and legislation. More time, data and research has to be done before the definite results of this legislation can be proven. A controversial issue Considering the opposing views about Accountable Care Act legislation, itÃ¢â¬â¢s reasonable to understand why universal health care has elicit such a heated political controversy among political parties as well as throughout American people. Unlike other Western industrialized nations, the U.S. has not established a universal health care system. Since health care is a fundamental defining policy of the modern state, and since ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s health care reform can be seen as an expansion of the role of government, it can be analyzed in a global context (Ha, 2012). The issue of health care reform brings important ethical issues of justice to the forefront, as individuals, communities, and the legislature struggle with how to provide quality health care for the many without sacrificing the basic rights of even the few (Sorrel, 2012). PolicyÃ¢â¬â¢s creation The divide on health care coverage, cost and sustainability for all Americans and the increased cost of health care in United States led to legislations being brought to seek out a solution to the issue. The American Recovery andÃ Reinvestment Act was the first of these laws, this act signed into law in 2009 by President Obama. The Preservation of Access to Care for Medicare Beneficiaries and Pension Relief Act was also signed into law. Also enacted and accompanied by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act. Another legislation that became a law in 2010 is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Patel, 2013). Provisions in the act are designed to expand insurance coverage, control costs, and target prevention (Gable, 2011). One of the primary targets is adults aged 19-64, since their access to health care and use of health services deteriorated between 2000 and 2010, particularly among those who were uninsured (Kenney, McMorrow, Zuckerman, Goin, 2012). The PPACA includes reforms such as prohibiting insurers from denying coverage for pre-existing conditions, expanding Medicaid eligibility, subsidizing insurance premiums, and providing incentives for businesses to provide health care benefits. Insurance companies will no longer be able to drop clients when they become ill. The act has the potential to improve health outcomes across all income and age groups at a reduced cost (Sorrel, 2012). Steps in the state and federal policy development process. The steps of the development process focus in the four Ã¢â¬Å"pillarsÃ¢â¬ of health reform: improving the quality of care, making health insurance affordable, supporting personal responsibility, and developing a sustainable approach to health care financing. This platform will help focus the initiative to tackle the growing costs of health care while preserving the highest quality of care for all Americans and avoiding cost-shifting wherever possible (Bipartisan Policy Center, 2013). Many ACA provisions went into effect immediately or soon after the health reform law was enacted in 2010; others are being phased in over time. Several major reforms, including the Medicaid expansion, insurance exchanges, and minimum coverage provision (Ã¢â¬Å"individual mandateÃ¢â¬ ) will go into effect in 2014, and still others will go into effect later. APHA recommends several great resources for tracking state progress on creating health insurance exchanges, funding states have received through various ACA provisions, and states intentions regarding the Medicaid expansion, and other topics (APHA, 2010). Policy development vs implementation. Policy development starts with knowing what the problem is and how the policy will improve the issue. So the importance of analyzing the data about the problem needing fixed. When writing the policy provide the opportunity for the input of the policy makers to suggest changes which provides different viewpoints. To present the policy to the committees for approval or changes as needed. Policy Implementation is ready to start with a timetable of how the implementing of the policy and briefing the States. Implementation of the Affordable Care Act is an enormous administrative challenge, and many details of its implementation are still developed by the Department of Health and Human Services (Wann, 2013). Policy development starts from the moment the public, the legislature think there is an issue and a solution is needed. The ACA development started many years ago back in the 90s when the Clinton administration specifically Hillary Clinton supported the creation of a Universal Health C are system, that laid the foundation on which ACA started to gather the issues and started to research possible solutions. The issues was brought by the public to the press, to the meetings and hearings during the elections campaign and started to gather strength and support on President Obama challenge not only the American people, but the entire Congress to bring out to the negotiations idea on how to increase access to care while reducing cost. The ACA legislation development follows several tenets as the building block in which the legislation was written and develop on, Quality affordable health care for all Americans, the role of public programs, Improving the quality and efficiency of health care, prevention of chronic disease and improving public health, Health care workforce, Transparency and program integrity, Improving access to innovative medical therapies, Community living assistance services and supports and Revenue provisions (Democrat Senate, 2004). The implementation process of the legislation follows the same tenet but there is not planning and changing is the plan drafted and written how each steps will be attained and when and lastly the evaluation of the development and the implementation and sitting back in the drafting table to fix any encountered issues. The development and implementation phases of the legislation cannot be seen as two different path but rather as a process of two collaboration between the two parts using the same foundation to build.Ã To summarize the differences between development and implementation would be that the developments of the policy consist of the idea to the final written policy. The implementation of the policy is the start of putting the policy in action. StakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement The stakeholders became involved with the affordable care act because even though this was controversial many believed that the needs were far greater than the issue and some changes were needed. Stakeholders for this legislation is the entire country of United States as the affected party, the health care providers, the legislators, the President of United States. In health care, the overarching goal for providers, as well as for every other stakeholder, must be improving value for patients, where value is defined as the health outcomes achieved that matter to patients relative to the cost of achieving those outcomes. Improving value requires either improving one or more outcomes without raising costs or lowering costs without compromising outcomes, or both. Failure to improve value means, well, failure (Porter, Lee, 2013). Stakeholders are heard during the elections periods where the issues to be discussed should and have to be of interest to the public to be added to the political platform. The press plays an important role on serving as the echo or the microphone to put the issues that are important for the American people. The Health care providers were a major force on the legislation development as their input from a business standpoint played major role on discussing areas that were part of the problem as well as area that needed to stay the same and it also serve as another voice of the public on such a controversial issue. Congress as a stake holder not only play a vital role on policy development and drafting but was the starting point of bringing the issue to the front and placed it in the agenda to be discussed and heard and last the President and its executive branch as the approval seal to the developed policy. In summary the Affordable Care Act has pique the interest not only as a national issue but a global one. Like any policy development the issues have to discuss by the stakeholders representing health care and each and every one has a specific interest in the issue to be solve. References American Public Health Association, (2014), ACA Implementation. Retrieved August 4, 2014 from http://www.apha.org/advocacy/Health+Reform/implementation/ Bipartisan Policy Center, (2013). Managing Costs, Preserving Care: Health Care Cost Containment Report Release. Retrieved on August 4th, 2014 from http://bipartisanpolicy.org/projects/health-care-cost-containment-initiative Patel, K. Parker, R. Villaruel, A.Wong,W (2013). Amplifying the Voice of the Underserved in the Implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved on August 4th, 2014 from http://www.iom.edu/Global/Perspectives/2013/AmplifyingTheVoice Ha, J. (2012). Health Care Reform vs ObamaCare: Partisan framing of FOX, MSNBC, NYT snd WSJ. Retrieved on August 4th, 2014 from http://gnovisjournal.org/2012/11/30/health-care-reform-vs-obamacare-partisan-framing-of-fox-msnbc-yt-and-wsj/ Porter, M. E. (2013), The Strategy that will fix health care. Harvard Business Review, Retrieved On August 4th, 2014 from http://hbr.org/2013/10/the-strategy-that-will-fix-health-care Sorell, M. J. (2012), Patient Protec tion and Affordable Care Act: Ethical Perspectives. Retrieved on August 4th, 2014 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/Columns/Ethics/Patient-Protection-and-Affordable-Care-Act-Ethical-Perspectives.html
Nissans Global Strategy Nissans global strategy with focus towards its entry and expansion to India Introduction Globalisation in terms of strategy actually makes us aware of to two simultaneous changes, the globalisation of industries and the globalisation of markets. The globalisation of industries refers to the increased integration of business across national borders due to rapid advancement in communications, transportations and the absence of wide spread high intensity world conflict leading to increased international trade flows and foreign direct investment. The technological advances combined with successful implementation of free trade policies by many countries has resulted in companies being able to expand their operations internationally as well as compete itself in multiple countries. The globalisation of markets refers to the concept that demand preferences are becoming more homogenous across national borders which means people are increasingly looking for same product around the world. Both these aspects play predominant importance in a firms global strategy towards its expansio n internationally. (Scott Gallagher, 2005) Nissans Global Strategy Nissan Motors global strategy involves its aim to become an industry leader in zero-emission vehicles and to cultivate developing markets with low-cost global cars. As part of zero-emission environmental friendly vehicles, it would be beginning with the launching of the new electric vehicles (EVs) which would be powered by advanced lithium-ion batteries to be jointly developed with electronic maker NEC Corp. The EV to be introduced will have a unique body style on an all-new vehicle platform which would be compact for the city, yet big enough to carry five adults. Importantly, it will be thoroughly usable with brisk performance and a range of 160kms. It will have the performance of a typical 1.6-litre petrol-engine car while recharging from a high voltage source will restore 80 per cent of the battery capacity in around 30 minutes. The company with its alliance partner Renault, which holds 44% stake in it, has been developing partnerships with various governments and specialist compa nies to build a sustainable mobility network and create public awareness towards EVs as its preparing for marketing them on a mass scale. Various understanding has been signed with electricity companies, charging station suppliers and governments to promote the concept of zero emission mobility and provide infrastructure support, craft legislation or offer incentives such as tax relief, parking or toll rebates for EV buyers (Source: The Japan Times online, May 14, 2008). Cultivating developing markets with low-cost global cars, Nissan is globally launching its new small car on a fresh global platform. The common global platform strategy is part of Nissans endeavour to produce a host of cars, be it hatchbacks or sedans, across five countries in which thus far India, China and Thailand have been identified as key manufacturing locations. The new small car, touted as a replacement for the Micra, will first go into production in Thailand with shipping out key components from India and t hen later on the production would be from India. Nissans Entry Expansion to India As part of its entry and expansion to India, the company is tying up with its alliance partner Renault and stetted up a manufacturing facility in Chennai, India with an investment of INR 4500 crores, which will have a capacity of producing four lakh units. It also has alliance with Ashok Leyland to build Light Commercial Vehicles, with Bajaj to develop ultra-low-cost cars, with Hover for marketing, sales and dealer development support and with Maruti-Suzuki to export A-segment vehicles to Europe (Source: The Hindu Business Line, Sep 30, 2009). Apart from setting up a manufacturing facility, Nissan Motors India Private Limited is also developing a high-tech research and development facility in Chennai mainly used for developing Robotic painting that would help in boosting up the quality, enhance flexibility, increase saving and improve safety for its international business. This R D facility would allow the company to claim the weighted tax deduction of up to 150% for in-house resear ch and R D activities entitled by the government of India, making its product more likely cheaper (Source: Rediff India Abroad, Apr 10, 2009). The company believes that the scope of growth in India is immense since the penetration of vehicles into the markets is less than 50 per 1000 nationals compared to US of 800, Germany, Japan, UK and France of 600 vehicles per 1,000 people. The total industry volume globally increased 6.1 per cent even though Western Europe was flat, the US market was down 3.5 per cent and Japan was down 5.3 per cent in 2008 (Source: Business Standard, May 13, 2008). As part of its marketing strategy, the company, which already has two models Ã¢â¬ËTeana and Ã¢â¬ËX-Trail for the Indian market from 2004 onwards, is rolling out new sports car Ã¢â¬ËZ370 in 2010 and fully redesigned luxury sedan Ã¢â¬ËTeana and Ã¢â¬ËX-Trail. The Ã¢â¬ËTeana which was pitted against the Volkswagen Passat and the BMW 3 Series, won the Indian Executive Car of the Year 2008 for its excellence in driving comfort, performance, design and style, purpose with relevance and value for money. All these three vehicles is brought as Completely Built Units from Japan paying 109 percent duty showing that the company is making all possible efforts to expand its presence in India. Apart from that the company, will increase its product range to nine models by 2012, five of which will be manufactured in the Chennai plant. The first among these, to be launched in mid 2010, will be a hatchback based on the platform of Nissan Micra, expected to be priced close to INR 5 lakhs in t he Indian market (Source: The Economic Times, Sep 27, 2009). The company will begin exporting to Europe by second half of 2010, approximately 110,000 units (expected to grow to 180,000 units in future), manufactured in India per year, for which it has a contract manufacturing alliance with Maruti Suzuki. For exporting from Chennai, India, it has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Ennore Port Ltd (EPL), making it the first automaker to utilize this eastern gateway port of India as an export base. EPL will complete development of a berth with space of 140,000m2 for vehicles by the end of June 2010 and would provide dedicated jetty for exports of Nissan cars to Europe (Source: Drive Inside.com, Oct 18, 2008). There is no information on how Nissan is going to price its car in Europe, exported from India, but the company will have to definitely address the import-export tariff rates as the EU-India Free Trade Agreement is still under negotiation and is most likely to be signed at the end of 2010. Regarding the exchange rate issues, it will depend upon which currency the company is going to invoice on. If its in US Dollars, as done for most of the trading between EU and India, then the company would have to look into the exchange rates between Indian Rupee Dollar and Dollar Euro. If its going for Euro trade, then it would have to address the exchange rates between Euro and Indian Rupee. In both these cases, the company will have to come up with fixed exchange values for fixing price and hope that it does not vary drastically on the negative side leading to reduced profit margins. The company wouldnt have problem converting the profit to Japanese Yen as the Indian currency is fully convertible in the current account. Business in India Doing business in India is all about knowing the system, reading the signals (political and economic) as well as understanding the mood of the market before making investment decisions. The country is politically stable having a parliamentary system of democracy, economically growing rapidly at around 8% in spite of economic downturn, culturally diversified and technologically advanced. It has an efficiently structured business enterprise system with regulatory laws in place which are updated regularly, in keeping with the needs of the industrial and management systems. It is the home to a huge middle class population whose purchasing power parity is rapidly growing which itself forms to one of the biggest consumer bases in the world, besides the growth potential, relatively low risk on investment, easy availability of highly skilled manpower, established contract law, developed legal system, modernizing stock markets, national banking system and democratic institutions constitutes t o some of its advantages. Indias return on investment is one of the highest in the world at 19% compared to Chinas at 14% owing to efficient use of capital, the reason for it is the cost of doing business in India is lower than most countries of the world because of the availability of inexpensive labour and advanced telecommunications (Source: Doing Business in India 2009, WB IFC). The business culture of India is a reflection of the various norms and standards followed by its people. It is so diversified that it changes between every province affecting the way business is done. A sound knowledge of Indias cultural practices and business etiquettes is necessary for any trade or business venture within the country. A proper understanding of culture and business etiquette would not only demonstrate a respect for India but will also create a feel good factor amongst the prospective clients. Culturally and as a mark of politeness, Indians have difficulty in saying no, this could be a stumbling block in negotiations and in closing contracts. The notion of time, time management, punctuality is still an anathema in India. It is more to do with the mindset and ingrained in the Indian culture. It would not be surprising if meetings are postponed, re scheduled, cancelled or organized at a very short notice. Bureaucratic hurdles and a laidback approach to work in the gove rnment circles results in delay in processing and overload of paperwork, hence immense patience is necessary for any business transaction. Also due to the lack of infrastructure and inadequate supply chain management, doing business need to be carefully organised and should be ready to overcome such hurdles. The companies follow the hierarchical system and decision making is usually from the top to bottom (Sandy Naidu, 2008). All companies doing business in India must comply with the regulatory laws under the Companies Act, 1956. It is mandatory for every company in India to register its Articles and Memorandum of Association with the Registrar of Companies (ROC) and should accompany Declaration of Compliance which must be duly stamped and signed by an advocate of the High Court or Supreme Court or chartered accountant in whole time practice, Notice of the situation of the registered company, Particulars of Directors and the ROCs letter indicating the approval of the nomenclature of the company in original. Automotive in India The automobile industry in India is the ninth largest in the world with an annual production of over 2 million units. It emerged as Asias fourth largest exporter of automobiles, behind Japan, South Korea and Thailand. Following economic liberalization in India in 1991 which included opening for international trade and investment, deregulation, initiation of privatization, tax reforms and inflation-controlling measures, the Indian automotive industry has demonstrated sustained growth as a result of increased competitiveness and relaxed restrictions. The industry clearly stands out as a significant contributor to the economic growth as it contributes to almost 4% to the GDP, accounting for about 5% of the total industrial output (KPMGs India Automotive Study, 2007). The Indian automobile industry has seen rapid technological change over the last decade in terms of both product characteristics as well as manufacturing processes. At the same time, technological changes and the deepening of technological capabilities have been confined not only to the car manufacturers but also to the auto components industry. The industry has witnessed an unprecedented boom in recent years, owing to the improvement in living standards of the middle class and a significant increase in their disposable incomes added up with easy availability of car loans, affordable rates of interest, smooth repayment facilities and the deductions offered by the retailers (KPMGs India Automotive Study, 2007). Keeping that in mind, most of the major global car manufacturers have established a presence, either through their subsidiaries or through Joint Ventures. These manufacturers have access to the latest technology in product, manufacturing process terms and range of products usin g which trying to make inroads into the Indian market. This has helped transform the technological landscape of the Indian car market by segmenting itself with all varieties of car models like the small cars, mid-size cars, luxury cars, super luxury cars and sports utility vehicles. The constant changes in the existing car models with regard to design, innovation, technology and colours have led to a fiercely competitive market. In spite of all these, the small cars still hold the major market share in terms of sales, making most of the manufacturers to develop cost effective technology to compete in that segment, since the consumers are extremely cost-conscious and have greater awareness towards the latest technologies. Seeing the rapid growth of vehicles in the country, government of India introduced range of policies to tackle vehicular pollution, as a major step towards this, India-2000 norms were introduced, which is Euro-I equivalent. Subsequently Bharat Stage-II (Euro-II equivalent) norms were put into place for passenger cars and multi-utility vehicles and now BS-III BS-IV norms are being adopted in highly polluted cities (Chikkatur, Ananth Sagar, 2007) . At the same time, government has also mandated a reduction of a number of critical pollutants from automobile fuels. Meeting these standards requires the implementation of some combination of technologies such as fuel injection, multi-valve engines, catalytic converters, fixed exhaust gas recirculation and need substantial change in engine design (A.D.Sagar P.Chandra, 2006). All these factors like intense competition, customers price sensitivity, increasingly sophisticated demands and progressively tighter emission standards have acted in concert to place a tremendous pressure on the manufacturers to reduce costs as well as offer an improved and wider range of technological features to their Indian and global customers. This, in turn, has resulted in a series of changes in the technological landscape of the Indian automobile industry. Challenges for Indian Automotive Industry Among the many issues facing the Indian automotive industry, the biggest by far is the poor road infrastructure. Indias road network, comprising of a modest national highway system is woefully inadequate and shabby and can barely keep pace with the auto industrys rapid growth. Most roads are single-lane roads crowded with two-wheelers, bullock carts, pedestrian humans and even cows. Traffic laws are not well enforced leading to one of the highest per-capita accident rates in the world. Secondly, attracting and nurturing talented manpower not only for the creation of better and reliable products but also for servicing and maintenance throughout the life cycle of the product. Thirdly, the massive increase in the cost of input materials like steel which has increased by almost 40%, copper by 45% and natural rubber by 40% and also the significant tariffs imposed on import products and components combined with the inconsistency of currency exchange rates make localization compulsory for c ompanies entering the Indian market. Some of the other issues are like inadequate testing facilities and inspection, maintenance and certification system. Presently the country has testing facilities at the Automotive Research Association of India and the Vehicle Research and Development Establishment, but the need for additional and more extensive test facilities has become clearer in the past few years. The country has Inspection and Maintenance policy but it is widely regarded as having only limited effectiveness and an upgraded inspection, maintenance and certification system with better enforcement is urgently needed (Automotive Mission Plan 2006- 2016, Dec 2006). Challenges for Nissan in India Other than the challenges discussed above, that is existing in the automobile sector in India, Nissan will have to overcome some of its own operational challenges like teaching the mindset of Ã¢â¬ËKaizen to its workers and local suppliers and to constantly and consistently raise their quality standards. Kaizen simply means continuous or constant improvement. In Japanese Kai means Ã¢â¬Å"to take apartÃ¢â¬ and zen means Ã¢â¬Å"to make good.Ã¢â¬ Together these two words mean to take something apart in order to make it better. Kaizen is based on the fundamentals of scientific analysis in which you Ã¢â¬Å"take apartÃ¢â¬ the elements of a process or system to understand how it works, and then discover how to influence or improve it. Continuous improvement is the small, gradual, incremental changes applied over a long period of time that add up to a major impact on business and quality results, the realisation of how important a smallest idea is in attaining greatest results. As part of that, under the guidance of team of engineers from Nissan and Honda, Caparo India, the Indian unit of a British auto parts maker that manufacturers steel body panels and other metal parts, have built up a new assembly lines using the Japanese and Taiwanese factory equipment and have effectively adopted Kaizen management (Source: The New York Times, Jun 26, 2008). The other threat the company has is, entering a market segment that is highly competitive, dominated by old players like Maruti-Suzuki, Hyundai Motors and Tata Motors, which together hold majority of the market share for so many years building the confidence of the customers, making it a late entry. The first car to be revealed by Nissan from the platform of Nissan Micra is going to compete with established and highly selling brands like Ã¢â¬ËSwift of Maruti-Suzuki, Ã¢â¬ËGetz of Hyundai Motors and Ã¢â¬ËIndigo of Tata Motors, two of this brand are also exported to Europe. Conclusion But in spite of all these challenge and threat factors, the company positions itself well and capitalise on its strengths like major global presence making it a reliable and approved international brand, commendable presence in the Europe market, good tie-ups with local Indian manufacturers like Bajaj, Mahindra and Ashok Leyland enabling them the ease of penetration by understanding the needs of customers and customising it accordingly. More than that, since the Indian car industry is expected to grow from 2 Million to 8 Million units by 2020, gives considerable opportunity to all players and Nissan could be one of the main gainers keeping in mind its international reputation and standards. References * Ambuj D. Sagar Pankaj Chandra (2006), Technological Change in the Indian Passenger Car Industry, Indian Institute of Management * AMP- Automotive Mission Plan 2006- 2016 The Department of Heavy Industries, Government of India (Dec 2006), www.siamindia.com/upload/AMP.pdf * Chikkatur, Ananth, and Ambuj Sagar (2007), Ã¢â¬Å"Cleaner Power in India: Towards a Clean-Coal-Technology RoadmapÃ¢â¬ , Indian Institute of Management * Doing Business in India 2009, World Bank and International Financial Corporation * KPMGs India Automotive Study 2007, Ã¢â¬ËDomestic Growth and Global Aspirations, KPMG International, 2007. * Sandy Naidu (2008), A Detailed Pocket Guide To Indian Business Culture, IQebooks.com * Scott Gallagher (2005), Why Does Firm Performance Differ? * Business Standard, May 13, 2008, www.business-standard.com/india * Drive Inside.com, Oct 18, 2008, www.driveinside.com/News/Press-Releases/55XGNS/NISSAN-WILL-BE-FIRST-AUTOMAKER-TO-EXPORT-FROM-ENNORE-PORT.aspx * Rediff India Abroad, Apr 10, 2009, http://www.rediff.com//money/2009/apr/10nissan-micra-in-india-in-2010.htm * The Hindu Business Line, Sep 30, 2009, www.blonnet.com/2009/09/30/stories * The Japan Times online, May 14, 2008, http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nb20080514a2.html * The Economic Times, Sep 27, 2009, http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/ news-by-industry/auto/automobiles/Nissan-to-launch-sports-car-Z370-in-India-in-2010/articleshow/5059873.cms * The New York Times, Jun 26, 2008, www.nytimes.com/2008/06/26/ business/worldbusiness/26iht-nissan.4.14028225.html * www.fleetcar.ie/index.php/news/169-nissan-puts-zero-emissions-at-centre-of-its-global-strategy * www.nissannews.com * www.stylusinc.com/business/india Bibliography * Indian Brand Equity Foundation, www.ibef.org/economy/economyoverview.aspx * Robin John Grazia Letto Gillies (2007), Global business strategy * SIAM -Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, www.siamindia.com * Tilman Altenburga, Hubert Schmitzb Andreas Stamma (2007), BreakthroughÃ Indias Transition from Production to Innovation * www.carazoo.com/autonews/0603200802/Nissan-keen-on-Indiaas-key-production-centre-for-future-cars * www.mfg-matters.com/kaizen/ * www.nissan-global.com/EN/DOCUMENT/HTML/FINANCIAL/SPEECH/2008/e-20080513.html
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Translating Emotion to the Screen with Composition and Shot Variation In A Raisin in the Sun Filmmaking and cinematography are art forms completely open to interpretation in a myriad ways: frame composition, lighting, casting, camera angles, shot length, etc. The truly talented filmmaker employs every tool available to make a film communicate to the viewer on different levels, including social and emotional. When a filmmaker chooses to undertake an adaptation of a literary classic, the choices become somewhat more limited. In order to be true to the integrity of the piece of literature, the artistic team making the adaptation must be careful to communicate what is believed was intended by the writer. When the literature being adapted is a play originally intended for the stage, the task is perhaps simplified. Playwrights, unlike novelists, include some stage direction and other instructions regarding the visual aspect of the story. In this sense, the filmmaker has a strong basis for adapting a play to the big screen. Despite the provision of stage directions, however, a play is not simple to adapt to a cinematic form. Plays rely heavily on dialogue to communicate emotion to the reader whereas film allows for close visual representation. Filmmakers can explore creativity in adaptation in many ways unavailable and impractical in the theater. In order to maximize the emotional impact of a dramatic work, the filmmaking team can make use of several simple yet effective tools, such as the composition of frames and the variations of the camera shot. In the 1961 film adaptation of Lorraine Hansberry's groundbreaking play A Raisin in the Sun, directed by Daniel Petrie, the filmmakers use these techniques in creative ways to communica... ...stival) starring one of America's most acclaimed actors, Sidney Poitier. Despite the necessity of the brilliant and groundbreaking writing of Hansberry, credit must be given to the filmmakers for translating the stirring emotion of the play into something visually moving. A theater production lacks the creative license for close-up shots of actors' faces, and the composition of the stage comes off as contrived and stilted at times. Although carefully planned and choreographed, the frame composition of the film is a subtle and creative exploration of the emotional message of this play. Works Cited A Raisin in the Sun. By Lorraine Hansberry. Dir. Lloyd Richards. Perf. Sidney Poitier. Ethel Barrymore Theatre, New York. 11 Mar. 1959. A Raisin in the Sun. Dir. Daniel Petrie. Perf. Sidney Poitier, Claudia McNeil, Ruby Dee and John Fiedler. Columbia Pictures, 1961. Emotion to the Screen with Composition and Shot Variation In A Raisin i Translating Emotion to the Screen with Composition and Shot Variation In A Raisin in the Sun Filmmaking and cinematography are art forms completely open to interpretation in a myriad ways: frame composition, lighting, casting, camera angles, shot length, etc. The truly talented filmmaker employs every tool available to make a film communicate to the viewer on different levels, including social and emotional. When a filmmaker chooses to undertake an adaptation of a literary classic, the choices become somewhat more limited. In order to be true to the integrity of the piece of literature, the artistic team making the adaptation must be careful to communicate what is believed was intended by the writer. When the literature being adapted is a play originally intended for the stage, the task is perhaps simplified. Playwrights, unlike novelists, include some stage direction and other instructions regarding the visual aspect of the story. In this sense, the filmmaker has a strong basis for adapting a play to the big screen. Despite the provision of stage directions, however, a play is not simple to adapt to a cinematic form. Plays rely heavily on dialogue to communicate emotion to the reader whereas film allows for close visual representation. Filmmakers can explore creativity in adaptation in many ways unavailable and impractical in the theater. In order to maximize the emotional impact of a dramatic work, the filmmaking team can make use of several simple yet effective tools, such as the composition of frames and the variations of the camera shot. In the 1961 film adaptation of Lorraine Hansberry's groundbreaking play A Raisin in the Sun, directed by Daniel Petrie, the filmmakers use these techniques in creative ways to communica... ...stival) starring one of America's most acclaimed actors, Sidney Poitier. Despite the necessity of the brilliant and groundbreaking writing of Hansberry, credit must be given to the filmmakers for translating the stirring emotion of the play into something visually moving. A theater production lacks the creative license for close-up shots of actors' faces, and the composition of the stage comes off as contrived and stilted at times. Although carefully planned and choreographed, the frame composition of the film is a subtle and creative exploration of the emotional message of this play. Works Cited A Raisin in the Sun. By Lorraine Hansberry. Dir. Lloyd Richards. Perf. Sidney Poitier. Ethel Barrymore Theatre, New York. 11 Mar. 1959. A Raisin in the Sun. Dir. Daniel Petrie. Perf. Sidney Poitier, Claudia McNeil, Ruby Dee and John Fiedler. Columbia Pictures, 1961.
Monday, August 19, 2019
I have a hard time thinking that anyone could believe the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s were a moral people. The Nazi people are unparalleled in the level of criminal unjust committed against a group of persons. NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s however did believe they were moral and were justified in their actions. The idea of Nazism was a way of life and one must think, feel, and act as in the best interest of Nazi beliefs. The moral code of the Nazi people was one that followed the idea that NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s were superior, competent, and pure. The moral code included the idea that those under persecution of the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s were inferior, less morally sound, and must use their tribulations to correct themselves to become a more loyal citizen of the community. One could classify their actions as racism and Social Darwinism. The Nazi people believed in filth and in accordance with the history of what happened in concentration camps, cleansing. Harold Ofstad is quoted of saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦The Nazi faith must permea te oneÃ¢â¬â¢s entire being, penetrate the very core of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s soulÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The moral code of the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s can be fairly labeled as a mistake of disastrous proportions, a group of people brainwashed from the strong sense of duty to a dictatorÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, and a stain in history that will never be forgotten. NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s believed that they were superior, they were morally sound in any action they may choose to take, they were justified to correct and or exterminate anyone being that was different from themselves, and that the Nazi belief and code of ethics was a way of life to carry one for eternity and to pass on for future generations. The moral code was one of imperfection, and many flaws that entitled the Nazi people to kill millions of Jews. The thought that the Nazi people were morally sound, or competent for that matter, is one that I hope every sane being can tell is false. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Nazi moral code is a very controversial matter and is a topic that I am sure has been examined and studied for countless years. Every living human has a moral identity and has developed responses to social interaction with others. These moral identities define who we all are and what we think of ourselves. The way we think of ourselves and the level of response we act upon others dictates our physical actions. One will act out in accordance with the level of response they believe in towards events such as cruelty, disrespect, and generosity.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Al Capone: One of the Most Ruthless Men of All Time Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The ultimate symbol of a gangster rule, is a guy by the name of Al Capone, who dominated the Chicago underworld by committing many crimes: such as illegal gambling, extortion, prostitution, and alcohol distribution during prohibition. CaponeÃ¢â¬â¢s life of gang activity started at a very young age. He created a multi-million dollar empire of crime in Chicago. He has been referred to as one of the most ruthless men of all time (Stockdale 45). He was a smart businessman, good family man, and a generous person, that lived a life full of murders and other crimes. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Gabriele Capone was a barber that lived in Naples, Italy who decided to escape a bleak rural life in the promise of work and success in the New World. He was one of 43,000 Italians who arrived in the U.S. in 1894 (Stockdale 7-8). Gabriele was 30 years old and he brought his 27-year-old wife, Teresina and their three sons. He was planning to start a barbershop when he got to America. On January 17, 1899, Teresina gave birth to their fourth son named Alphonse Capone (Bardsley 2). The Capone family lived a very normal life with no problems or events that would explain why their sons chose a life of crime. In 1907, Gabriel moved his family into an apartment over his barbershop in an Italian district in south Brooklyn. This move exposed Alphonse to a different kind of life on the streets. He became a member of a junior gang called the Forty Thieves Juniors, which taught its members the art of petty vandalism. The gang taught him how to use violence to get what you want . When he was 14 years old, Al got expelled from school and never went back after he got mad at his teacher and hit her. By this time, Al Capone was destined to live a life of crime (Stockdale 9-11). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã By the time Al was 14 years old, he was an experienced streetfighter and had learned how to use a knife and gun successfully. He became a good leader of the junior gang and was introduced to the Five Points Gang in Brooklyn by Frankie Yale and John Torrio. He began working for Frankie Yale who was an important figure in the adult gang in Brooklyn. Al was 16 years old and was helping control YaleÃ¢â¬â¢s prostitution, gambling, extortion, and protection rackets (Schoenberg 23-25). Al Capone worked at the Harvard Inn as ... ...). Capone never went back to doing any gang activity because of his illness. Then on January 21, 1948, Al Capone suffered a massive brain hemorrhage. Capone regained consciousness and was able to talk with his family. Then a few days later he caught pneumonia and died of a heart attack on January 25. His body was buried in Chicago on February 4. The site of his grave became a famous tourist attraction so they moved the body to an unpublicized spot in Mount Carmel Cemetery. His tombstone read, Ã¢â¬Å"My Jesus Mercy (Bergreen 605-609).Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Public service is my motto. Ninety percent of the people in Chicago drink and gamble. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve tried to serve them decent liquor and square games. But IÃ¢â¬â¢m not appreciated. IÃ¢â¬â¢m known all over the world as a millionaire gorilla,Ã¢â¬ said Al Capone (Bergreen 16). Alphonse Capone redefined the concept of crime into an organized endeavor modeled on corporate enterprise (Stockdale 45). He dominated the Chicago underworld through illegal gambling, extortion, prostitution, and alcohol distribution. Capone eliminated all of his opponents and avoided prosecution for the crimes that he committed. He was the ultimate symbol of a gangster rule.