Monday, January 28, 2019

A Can of Bull

A bear of Bull? impulsion button insobriety Charleys List of Questions Energy is the capacity to do make for 1. temper of from each one ingredient on the behinds Xcitrusblast amino group blistering l-taurine, l-glutamine, stifling citric acid, pantothenic acid, hcl Concentrated water-based extraction adaptogen blend Sugar sucralose, acesulfame potassium, Vitamin nicotinic acid, cyanocobalamin Energy caffeine Salt atomic number 11 benzoate, potassium sorbate, dishonor yellow 5 Redbull Amino acid taurine Acid glucuranolact angiotensin converting enzyme, pyridoxine HCL Sugar sucrose, glucose Vitamin niacin, D-pantothenol, vitamin B12 Energy caffeineSalt sodium citrate, Dye colors Sobe Adrenaline Rush Amino acid taurine, Acid citric acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine hydrochloride Sugar high fructose corn syrup, , Vitamin monopotassium phosphate, beta-carotine, folic acid, Energy caffeine, Siberian ginseng, Salt sodium citrate, Dye caramel color proclivity Amino acid taurine S ugar sucrose Vitamin niacinimide, C, B12, Energy caffeine, Dyecolors 2. Acesulfame Potassium (Sunett) Arti? cial sweetening to provide taste. Aspartame- Low calorie arti? cial sweetener that provides taste. Ca? eine- Some studies bring shown that ca? ine may better recollection and reasoning responses on tests Citric Acid- It is a precursor for the citric acid cycle (Krebs Cycle), which is a major path in the electric cellular phones production of chemical ability. antipernicious anemia factor- Important for harvest-home, cell reproduction, blood formation, and protein and thread synthesis. Folic Acid- Required for metabolism of carbon compounds, nucleic acids, and amino acids. Fructose Can be converted into a form for entry into the essential metabolous pathway in which the chemical pushing of its bonds is converted into ATP, the primeval ability soupcon in the body.Glucose Enters the primary metabolic pathway in which the chemical nix of its bonds is converted i nto ATP, the primary thrust molecule in the body. Glucuronolactone- It is a general human metabolic byproduct formed from glucose. Glucuronolactone is found in concurrence tissue in animals. Also regulates formation of glycogen. Sm all amounts shouldnt be harmful. 1-Glutamine Aids in muscle building and maintenance. Inositol Controls cholesterol levels and has potential antioxidant capabilities. Niacin (nicotinic acid) Derivatives such as NADH argon required for metabolism.It is said to aid in the synthesis of amino acids, the subunits of proteins. It has not been directly linked to improving gymnastic performance. Niacinamide Pantothenic Acid (also known as D-pantothenol) Precursor of coenzyme A. Helps you use fats and carbohydrates to make molecules use for energy. Potassium sorbate Chemical formula C6 Used to inhibit fungal growth in foods. Pyridoxine HCL Energy production, e? cient metabolic functioning, protein digestion, as advantageously as maintaining healthy ne rvous system, skin, hair and nails. Sucralose (splenda) Arti? cial sweetener to provide taste.Sucrose Can be converted into a form for entry into the primary metabolic pathway in which the chemical energy of its bonds is converted into ATP, the primary energy molecule in the body. 1-Taurine Im parentd reaction time, concentration, and computer memory (not proven) essential amino acid for cats. Water Essential for physiological processes. 3. Caffeine, Pantothenic Acid, Pyridoxine hcl, Sucrose 4. Cyanocobalamin Post Research Analysis IMPULSE Sources of Energy Amino Acids Stimulants &038 Vitamins other Pyridoxine HCl Sucrose Glucuronolactone Inositol 1-Taurine Caffeine Vitamin B12Vitamin C Niacinamide Artificial flavors Colors carbonate Water Questions 1. Energy is the ability to do work 2. Water- Essential for physiological processes Sucrose- Can be converted into a form for entry into the primary metabolic pathway in which the chemical energy of its bonds is converted into ATP, the primary energy molecule in the body Taurine- Improved reaction time, concentration, and memory (not proven) essential amino acid for cats. Glucuronolactone- It is a mean(prenominal) human metabolic byproduct formed from glucose. Glucuronolactone is found in connective tissue in animals.Also regulates formation of glycogen. Small amounts shouldnt be harmful. Caffeine- Some studies crap shown that ca? eine may purify memory and reasoning responses on tests other studies wealthy person shown that ingesting 3-9mg of ca? eine one hour before physical activity improves natural selection running and cycling in athletes. No adverse e? ects inhumans have been documented. Inositol- Controls cholesterol levels and has potential antioxidant capabilities Niacinimide- component of the coenzymes NAD and NADP, important in the redox reactions of metabolism pyridoxine HCL- Energy production, e? ient metabolic functioning, protein digestion, as hygienic as maintaining healthy nervous sys tem, skin, hair and nails. h e B-compound vitamins argon probably the single most important set of factors needed for straightlaced maintenance of the nervous system as well as beseeming functioning of the cell and its energy metabolism vitamin C- It is a precursor for the citric acid cycle (Krebs Cycle), which is a major pathway in the cells production of chemical energy vitamin B12- Important for growth, cell reproduction, blood formation, and protein and tissue synthesis ) Pyridoxine HCl Energy production Sucrose, Glucuronolactone, and Inositol all converted into ATP b) None. 3. Ca? eine is a mild CNS input signal with a transient e? ect. 4. They help your energy rise for the little(a) while 5. Yes, the analysis does support the introduce that Impluse is an energy inebriation. Pyridoxine HCl, sucrose, glucuronolactone, and inositol are all sources of energy. 6. Yes, the drink could serve different purpose depending on the consumer.For instance, if the consumer is an at hlete, he/she could use the drink as a source of energy, to perform better. It helps improve endurance in running, cycling, improve reaction time and concentration and Astor normal everyday people it can speed up metabolism, help restrict cholesterol, give energy, help maintain healthy nervous system, even improve reasoning skills on tests. If the consumer is a student, however, he/she could use the drink again as a source of energy but perhaps to work better in school, stay up to study, and do homework. . Sugar hyperglycema can occur in high in takes of sugar Caffeine hallucinations and suicide 8. No sugar doesnt cause hyperactive activity. 9. Your body uses sleep as a rebuilding time for muscles. Your muscles use energy most efficiently. If they never have time to recover then they cannot work properly. Therefore your energy can be depleted. However, lack of energy can be a sign of much serious issues such as anemia or thyroid problems. If this is an on going problem you shoul d definitely consult your physician. 0. Yes, the energy drink contains ingredients like caffeine to temporary allow you to be boost your energy along with others and pyridoxine which helps keep a healthy nervous system some vitamins. And also has multiple ingredients to increase metabolism 11. If disposed the option between a can of Coke or one of the energy drinks, one should choose the energy drink. This is because the energy drink has slightly lower calorie count and less sugar. Also, the energy drinks provide more energy and have certain vitamins.Also, I would rather buy an an energy drink because it would benefit you better than buying a coke that gives no nutrition at all but instead just practiced of caffeine and sucrose for energy. At least with impulse you get some nutritional benefit out of it. However, energy drink is only sober if taken in moderation. Assessment After conducting the assessment on the Impulse energy drink, weve concluded that the marketing claim for this particular drink does prove to be legitimate and is supported by the ingredients of the drink.The drink does, in fact, set about its energy from nutrients, minerals, and vitamins such as the ones listed on the nutrition facts. The marketing claim does not leave off any ingredients and directly inform the consumers of how each functions and its purpose. However, one thing that the marketing claim does forget to mention is that the drink should only be consumed in moderation because of the harmful effects it could have on the body if consumed in massive amounts.

Film Analysis: the Boy in the Striped Pyjamas Essay

In the movie, The male child in the Striped Pyjamas, the holocaust which happened in history was clearly depicted. It was shown in the film how the Jews were poorly treated by the Nazis at that time. Hence, here argon some instances in the film where preconception, bias, discrimination and ethnocentrism were depicted. First is prejudiceMerriam-Webster describes prejudice as an injury or damage resulting from some judgment or transaction of another in disregard of ones rights. damage was most evident in the ending scene where the Jews from the concentration bivouac were put inside a large gas chamber, and they were made to recall that they were just going to take a bath, however the truth is they are to face their death. Also, the fact that they were confined inside a concentration encampment was already a huge example of prejudice since this has taken apart their freedom. Bias, on the other hand, is a personal and unreasoned judgment. This was shown in the part where Schmuel was in the foretoken of Bruno doing some work.He was given food by Bruno, but they were caught by a Nazi soldier. Schmuel was trying to defend himself by copulation the truth, but the Nazi soldier still believed Brunos lies just because Schmuel was a Jew. Next is discrimination which is having a prejudiced or prejudicial outlook, action or treatment towards others. In the film, when Bruno and his family transferred to Auschwitz, there was an old Jew who were like their house help. He received discrimination since he was treated as if he had a contagious diseasethe children were not allowed to interact with him.Also, Brunos dadaism constantly reminded him that he keepnot go out of the confines of their home, especially to the conjure up Bruno saw from his window. This restriction was discriminating because it showed how the Nazis shied away from the Jews. Lastly, ethnocentrism is characterized by or establish on the attitude that ones own group is superior. Hence, it can be ded uced that the film centered on ethnocentrism which existed at that time when the German Nazis believed that they are superior to the Jews, thus giving them the right to put the Jews to estimable extinction. This ethnocentrism gave rise to the holocaust which was the main story of the film.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Education of the Henry Adams

The Education of the Henry Adams reviews Adams and the United Statess education and growth during the 19th century. Adams was an aging man who had Puritan beliefs active sex and religion. In this autobiography, Adams voices his skepticism about mans newfound power to control the direction of history, in p fine articular, the exploding world of scholarship and technology, where all certainties of the future have vanished (anb.org, 1).Adams grew up in the United say where he was a Puritan. Puritans believed that sex (women especially) was just a form of fruitfulness and reproduction otherwise sex was a sin (Adams, 384). American art, exchangeable the American language and American education, was as removed as achievable sexless (Adams, 385). The only sculptures and paintings of women that Adams viewed with understanding were those like the Virgin Mary, who was always seen as non-sexual.For example, America was ashamed of herhave strewn fig-leaves so profusely all all over her (Adams, 384). However, during this time of the technology revolution, women were beginning to be viewed differently, especially in Europe. Women were viewed as beautiful and mortal beings. People such as Rodin were representing women in paintings and sculptures sexually. evoke was becoming something more than just a means of reproduction. Suddenly Adams was far, far away from his Puritan custom-bound life.People were no longer motivated by religion, being saved by God, and going to heaven science, technology, money, and power had interpreted over the drives of man. Religion (a common scale of the past) had taken the backseat to science, technology, money, power, and the new ideas and art of sex (all new scales of the present and the future). In opposition to the medieval Virgin, Adams maxim a new godhead-the dynamo-symbol of the modern historys anarchic energies (anova.org, 1). Adams desperately wanted to learn about the new world of technology, the dynamos, yet he felt helpless to find this new knowledge and to comprehend it.Adams was overwhelmed by the technology of the dynamos. When Adams saw the dynamo, it became a symbol of the future, of infinity (Adams, 380). He began to experience the forty-foot dynamos as a moral force, much as early Christians felt the cross (Adams, 380). Like the changes in art and sexuality, the technology was overtaking religion. The dynamo, to Adams, has befit a symbol of the unknown, of the future without God and religion. This was Adamss greatest indecision going against all of his past and beliefs and moving on into the unpredictable future.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Lavendery Cafe Essay

Levendary Cafe was appointed with a new CEO in January 2011. Mia nourish is a first time CEO with no supranational management take, faced with a major ch whollyenge at Levendary Cafe, a $10billion US-based fast chain. However, the Levendary Cafe already established in mainland china securities industry while departing CEO Howard Leventhal in the position. Strategically, m whatsoever of the corporate staff set out become anguished that the companys major expansion into chinaware is moving too far from Levendaryswell defined plans of store send off and menu. Besides that, Mia Foster is also found that Chinese subsidiary submitted all management and financial reports to Denver or likely known as headquarters of Levendary Cafe in its own format. Louis subgenus subgenus subgenus Chen is the president of Levendary mainland chinaware. He is capable of speak Mandarin Chinese and English and had long experience as retail property developer gave him intimate familiarity with neighbo rhoods in shanghai and capital of Red China. Chen also had a network of contacts to help speed up the carry out of permitting, incorporating, and staffing stores.However, in order to every emplacementcome these challenges, Mia Foster had her first video multitude meeting with Louis Chen. Since, Mia Foster is not satisfied with financial report format, she urged Louis Chen to make a change. Meanwhile, financial evidence shows that Chens efforts postulate produced strong results and suggests that he knows China far better than U.S headquarters does. Mia Foster wants to protect the integrity of reporting structure. Organizationally, Foster has been frustrated by the sheer un leave behindingness of Louis Chen to confirm to the companys planning and reporting processes. Therefore, Chief Franchise officer Peter was locomote to China target a comprehensive review on the 23 Levendary Cafe in the food market. Hence he submitted the detailed description on the 23 Levendary Cafes in China to Mia Foster.Based on the detailed description submitted to the CEO, She found that several(prenominal) Levendarys Cafe concept of store project and menu was customized without any standardized. Thus, Mia Foster had a second video conference meeting with Louis Chen. During the meeting, Chen response angrily to Foster, he was work hard to begin from correct until 23 Levendary Cafe today and explained the necessitates of differentiation and customization in the foreign market as well. Finally, Foster is aw be of the difficulties of localizing a chain restaurant concept in foreign market. As a result, Foster decided flies to China to meet with Chen individualally and to make a purpose that will determine the future of Levendary China.ProblemsWhen Levendary entered China, they gave Chen the full control over the operations there, although a well-developed detailed plan and a clear play of how to implement this plan is a must(prenominal). However it is clearly this is not the solecism whereas everything had been handed to Chen from A to Z. The chain of Levendary Caf in USA atomic number 18 run by a strict set of rules and allowing modifications only by and by approval from the concept group regarding the typeface and feel of the firm. The Levendary Caf in China is following a business mystify which is completely different from that of the US operation model. Chen wanted this caf to line up to the changing tastes of people from place toObserving the various critical situations menti championd above, the following are the various problems that are to be dealt. The first problem will be the differences in account techniques used by China and US. This is a major problem for the HQ of Levendary Caf because as it being a listed company it should be as sincere and uniform as possible while preparing its income statements which will be the translated into yearbook reports and they will be the face of the company in the public. So, translating the in come reports from China into reports fit to the GAAP principles used in USA is both time pickings and increasing the costs.Furthermore, the outlet design standards and menu selection in China are different with US. There are non- standardized operations in China with US. The Levendary Caf in China is following a business model which is completely different from that of the US operation model. Chen wanted this caf to adapt to the changing tastes of people from place to place. Chen setting up stores accord to the local needs rather than following the standardized model vary by US outlets. He also tried to modify the look and feel of the caf according to the locality in which it is operating.For example, the branch at Shanghais historic Yu Garden area provided a takeaway look to with no seating and the branch at North entrance to Beijings Forbidden City, replaced classic wooden framed upholstered chairs with aplastic framed secondary besides no salads on its menu which salad i s a must on US menu. While the branch at Shanghai, all but one sandwich item had been removed from the menu & replaced by a variety of local.Chen was modifying Levendarys signature menu items, outlet design standards and the overall caf environments without consulting U.S. management. Hence, newly appointed Levendary CEO Mia Foster was faced with a number of pressing matters ranging from how to link Chen and his management team to those in corporate headquarters, to the standardization of future Levendary Caf locations.Decision Analysis &Solutions cogitate of the case study, Levendary Caf has taught the person who reads particularly business player to concern and result headquarter, yet disremembering the subordinate within doing business. Even somehow headquarter is not the fondness of the truth without doing any respectable dialogue with the subordinate. The Levendary Cafs main person is Mia Foster, as a CEO and Louis Chen, an employee who runs and in charge of the Levend ary business in China.By this case, Chen must be obviously maintain the communication and the concern of Levendary China situation to the Headquarter. The situation of Lavendary China must be monitored by consensus and Chinese Operation market. Mia Foster as a CEO, she capability more understand the needs of Headquarter and Levendary China market. The operation of the Levendary China will follow the requirements and report by Louis Chen.Generally, the Levendary headquarter must be extra concern about the up-to-date and current issues of the subsidiary office. By the case study, the Levendary China is struggling into the market and competition, how to settle the business in China as well as trying hard to keep an eye on certain rule and regulations of headquarter, essentially those were not be working.Technically, the barrier was veneer in Levendary China is about localized the market segmentation. The Levendary China must build the solid and tough team through leading by Chen. Actu ally, Louis Chen had brilliant idea to draw the excessive concept for Levendary China and would work out with that idea. The only things that Chen needs are sightly endorsement from Mia Foster and headquarter.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

James Fowler’s “Stages of Faith” Essay

In response to James Fowlers poses of Faith, I have to agree with a majority of these coifs. With premise that there ar no social, physical or mental deficiencies, his stages are appropriate with manners development. As I read his stages of breeding, I tack together myself giving him credit for a rule of thumb or princip anyy speaking type of tone. Stage 0 is a predictable stage of life. Primal or Undifferentiated their faith is characterized by an early acquirement of the safety of their environment consisting of warmth, safety and secure vs. hurt, neglect and abuse. In all cultures and communities this is very common. As I read onto stage 1, this is where I started to non disagree, however extend the stages beyond his age interpretations. Stage 1 is a stage that does non just symbolize ages three to seven. Rather, their whole life in some say. Stage 1, Intuitive-Projective, can be developed into belatedly adulthood until an image is created. Stage 2 seems to be the most play we come across as parents.The name should really be called the mood stage. They imagine wild stories of consequences, illogical reality and really a misinterpreted modality of life. However, their faith is sport and completely interesting to listen to how they filter messages. Stage 3 of Synthetic-Conventional I could not agree with more. At my stage in life, I find myself sitting pretty in Stage 4 Individuative-Reflective faith. This stage of faith is based polish off of experiences in life and how to ruff adapt and relate to each item. Unfortunately this stage is also distrait with the responsibilities of life. In stage 4 we are raising kids, starting careers, acquire houses, and finding a harsh reality of life. While it very fun and exciting, faith can take a back seat and not a priority. Stage 5, the mid-life crisis is occurring more and more often. My father in law, afterwards 33 years packed up and left this past blessing for selfish reasons he admits to. There comes a point in life that after stage 4 is complete and your job, whether raising kids, paying off houses, cars or raising kids comes to an end, you can become confused on the controllables and uncontrollables life. This takes us to the final stages of life. Stage 6, or the

Monday, January 21, 2019

Alex Pardee

Alex Pardee Born and brocaded in Antioch, California, Alex Pardee is an up and coming graphicsist who is breaking d profess umpteen a(prenominal) figurative aesthetic barriers. With a style molded from years of disgust movies, comic books, old school gangster rap, and severe depression and anxiety, Alexs style is simultaneously horrific and fascinating. Alexs struggle within himself had a positive outcome that he intends to share with anyone with an open mind, eyes, and ears. At the grow of 14, Alex was diagnosed with anxiety and depression.He was hospitalized for months, growing restless as the doctors tried to find the set combination of pills to make him back to normal. However, pills and therapy werent the treatment Alex needed. To keep himself diligent during his days at the hospital, he drew to pass the time. His drawings became more puzzle out and twisted as the number of days he spent cornerstone white doors built up. When he was released, there was no turning back. As a child, Alex enjoyed newspaper comics. He and his sister would trace the comics and add their own captions.Alex Pardee has always been drawn (no pun intended) to different art, whether it be old movies wish The Dark Crystal and Star Wars, graffiti, skateboard art, or the likes of Strawberry Shortcake. The prototypal twisted comic that captured his interest was The Maxx, lay downd by Sam Keith. Before he found The Maxx, he never took a liking to comic books, sentiment they were wholly superhero non signified. This dark, untidy comic about the tragic happenings of a juvenile girl changed his view of the comic industry as a unit of measurement and inspired his own twisted, powerful, unkempt style.As far as education, Alex has no art degrees of any sort under his belt. When he was a kid, he precious to be Bobo Fett. But, during high school, his dream was actually to attend film school, only that dream remained dormant due to his extremely introverted personality. The though t of accessible interactions during projects prevented him from pursuing that career. He chose art because he knew he could easily do that from the comfort and safety of his own home. What inspires you? is the most common and hated interrogative sentence that Alex is asked.The possibilities of that answer are always so complex and hard to bump that he often gives simple answers that leave inquirers unsatisfied. To simplify the near novel-length answer, at two it was Star Wars. At four it was Disneyland. At six it was my parents. At nine it was Garbage Pail Kids. At 14 it was Robocop. At 15 it was The Maxx. At 16 it was Street Fighter. At 17 it was graffiti. At 20 it was the discovery of zines and self-publishing. At 21 it was Photoshop. At 22 it was Half-Life. At 23 it was painting. At 25 it was screen-printing.At 26 it was Aqua Teen Hunger Forceand full-grown Swim. At 30 it was Zerofriends. At 35 it was Chloe (his girlfriend). Alex Pardee began with small drawings on rise pa per or in notebooks. Once his skills and techniques improved, he made photocopies of his sketches and jolting copies of his books and began spreading them like wildfire around his town. Copies were strewn about waiting rooms, public restrooms, magazines, newspapers, and anywhere else he could think of putting them with the hopes that someone would recognize his talent and efforts.This keep until 1999, when a handful of other artists encouraged him to own his books professionally printed. To carry for printing expenses, he got a job at a spiel store. He had the job for nine years and maintained a sweetie love/hate relationship throughout. In the first year at his toy store occupation, Alex released his first book, My Book of Colors. After the release, he began devoting all his time, blood, sweat, and tears into his skyrocketing career. Since then, he has released the book series Bunnywith and The Secrets of Hollywood.These releases branched out into calendars, clothing, poster s, rich dolls, figurines, and multiple art exhibits. He is a member of the art groups unreal City and Zerofriends, which recently opened their own store in San Francisco, California. Alex has do artwork for the bands The Used, Aiden, In Flames, and Cage. His artwork for The Useds album In Love and Death depicted a signature Pardee character named Chadam, whose fabrication was made into a Warner Bros short film. He also did design and artwork for the movie Sucker Punch. Alex Pardees horrifically moving artwork has captured the interest of many around the world.His unique style has inspired that of many upcoming artists to create equally disturbing and fantastic pieces. Not only does he have thousands of sketches, paintings, and short stories to shed light on the warped convolutions of his mind, but he has a less than perfect back story and wicked sense of sarcasm to verify it. Thats all part of what makes him so fascinating. An brilliant and talented man, Alex Pardee is an icon of persistence and individuality for thousands upon thousands of aspiring artists and seemingly bemused inhabitants of Earth.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Providing Care for Looked after Children

At the end of March 2011, there were 65,520 looked- afterwards clawren and young people in England and therefore m whatever professionals are needed to keep up a entire type of compassionate for every single child who is to be looked after. The wellness and wellbeing of looked-after children and young people (their physical health, social, educational and emotional wellbeing), comes from their quality of life and/or guard.Some looked-after children and young people get to positive experiences in the palm system and gain salutary emotional and physical health, do well in their education and go on to have ethical jobs and careers but the start to this is from the arrangements made in order to receive good quality care. It is the government or councils responsibility to decide who looks after the child, where they will live and also how they are educated.It is important when choosing a carer for a child that they will perhaps have things in common or are at least not the compl ete opposites to each former(a)wise as that may lead to bad quality care and a low emotional well-being. If given the responsibility of looking after a child it is officially that carers job to provide a basis for the child and protect and maintain the child. They are also responsible for disciplining the child, choosing and providing for the childs education, agreeing to the childs medical treatment, naming the child and agreeing to any change of name looking after the childs property.Parents have to make for sure that the child is fill-ined financially. At the start of care proceedings, the council asks the family woo to make a temporary cost order, called an interim care order. If the court agrees, the council can take the child into care on a temporary basis. This can some prison terms be for up to 8 weeks at first. After that, it can be re vernaled every 28 days. It can take up to a year for a court to decide what should happen to the child.Sometimes it can take even lon ger than this. During this time a social prole and other people will be trying to understand the reasons why the child may be at risk. They will also look at what can be do to keep them safe. They will talk to the parents and the child regularly. They may talk to other family members or friends about looking after the child if they cant safely live at home. The parents might also get support and in many occasion the parent is often seen to first.The social worker will write a report for the court. These will outline what they ring should happen to the child. Once all the information has been gathered, there will be a court hearing. The judge will look at the reports, and get a line to everyone involved in the case, including the child, the parents, solicitors representing parents and children and the council social worker. The child will go lynchpin home if the judge decides that theyre safe. If not, the council will find them a new home.That may be with other members of their family, friends, a new family or childrens home. In care proceedings, a Childrens Guardian from Cafcass represents the rights and interests of the child. They spend time getting to know the child and their family onward the hearing. The Childrens Guardian appoints a solicitor for the child, advises the court about what needs to be done before it can make a decision and writes a report for the court saying what would be best for the child including the childs wishes and feelings.The child, in one case in their new home will receive a care plan which includes how they will be educated. Most of the decisions about the childs welfare will be taken by their social worker and foster carer (or residential care worker). The parent may also be involved depending on the circumstances. The social worker is responsible for making sure said child can achieve their potential when educated.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

History of Architecture Essay

1. Comparing and contrasting Minoan and Mycenaean architecture, distinguish how the two architectures are different and why.Minoan architecture was characterized by a number of structures that acted as epicenters for religious, commercial, and administrative lifestyles. In the recent past, archeologists discovered tombs, palaces, towns, and roadstead in Crete which symbolized the Minoan landscape. All this evidences the pre-historic culture that survived in the Aegean Sea. Minoan palaces were used to hold gatherings, workshop for trickists and food stores. The palaces were multi-storied buildings with impressive exterior and intragroup staircases. The tombs were built in round shape with a flat wood-framed roof. It was non until Neopalatial period, 1700-1400 BC that Minoan towns started to emerge and easier linkage between the towns and palaces, roads were real via the interior of the island (Marquand, 2008).On the other hand, Mycenaean architecture came into being in the Mycena ean period and most of their architecture is indebted to architecture of Minoans of Crete. An great characteristic make of Mycenaean architecture comprises of megaron, usage of exceptionally magnanimous stone blocks, corbel vaulting, and large fortification walls. Besides, the Bronze Age Cities innovation and layout on the mainland resembled that of palaces of Crete to a large extent. Some of the major Mycenaean architectural projects were huge tombs, city planning, and palace.Palaces in the Minoan period had an open, vast motor hotel whereas in Mycenaean megaron indoor(a) hall. Mycenaean architecture is also verbalise to cast been characterized by professional engineering works -evidenced by surface of stone blocks used in constructing walls. Later their work was referred to as cyclopean architecture by the Hellenics and another distint feature from from the Minoans was the technique used in corbel vaulting. Therefore, Mycenaeans can be said to have been more skilful in th e architectural works as compared to the Minoans (Marquand, 2008).2. Discuss the evolution of the Grecian synagogue form from its early days as a megaron to how it is correspond in the Hellenistic period. How and why did it evolve in the way that it did?A number of earliest Hellenic Temples are up to date the orientalizing and geometrical periods. The temple had a votive model which in most cases was appoint in tombs and the basic geometric style of an ornament. The persistent advancement of the Greek Temple was was characterized by an addition of more columns, increased sizing, and inclusion of everyday underlying base of three steps. Therefore, the columnar screens and base generated a exemplary and visual transition from the normal world to the space of the temple. The progression of the Greek Temple involved a number of stages the first stage is the megaron indoor hall- which saw it being used as temple and it was initiated in the Mycenaean period second stage was charac terized by initiation of peristyle and an increased size stage three was evidenced by completion of the peristyle, integration of the secretaryality of Egyptian temple, symmetrical construction, and architectural design in conformity with requirements of Golden office (Marquand, 2008).The Greek Temple has therefore totally remained to be a monument and it does not seem to combine its setting with the Mycenaean and Minoan designs. The temple is also a major achievement by human beings to have accomplished and the Temple represents an exceptional object from the rude(a) environment. Consequently, the Temple has move to serve as a commemoration of the geographical sacredness and provision of sanctification with a terrace that acted as the temples pedestal. It is also expense noting that the aforesaid column conk outs of the Temple does not match to natural forms much(prenominal) as plants or trees since the basic assumption was to evoke a human rationale and reasoning as oppose d to monumentalism. The masterpiece of Greek architecture continued to evolve into classical designs (500-323 BC) and Hellenistic designs (323-27 BC) and it was evidenced by improved engineering skills applied in constructing towers (Ibid, 2008).3. Describe the sensory survive of the Panathenaic Procession that would lead you to the Acropolis and up into the complex.It is quite evident that when one takes a closer look in the historical books of ancient Greek and during the definitive period that there was a direct relationship between religion, politics, and art or architecture. Historians have established that first temples were created to house cults and in contingent to facilitate religious practices in the community. Parthenon as a temple was stunningly placed in the Holy City of Acropolis and hence acted as a means with which people could link the temple to their past. A notable feature is the Panathenaic Procession as it represented the religious and social lifestyles of the Athenians. Besides, the Procession was part and parcel of festivities that honored Athena, panathenaea which was commemorated annually. The procession comprised of ritual presentation of new cloaks or peplos to the ceremonial Athena statue (Neils, 1992).After every four years, a presentation of a huge peplos was made to the Grand Panathenaea in spite of appearance the Parthenon. Subsequently, every other successive year, Panathenaic Procession was marked by peplos presentation to Athena within the Erechtheum. As a formality, the Panathenaic Procession was started at Diployn Gate and traversed Agora with the final destination being in Acropolis. The performance of most importance to the women as during the period they performed a lot of activities such as weaving and presenting huge peplos to Athena every quarter year in Pathenon and smaller peplos to Athena in Erechtheum on yearly basis. Phases of Procession were represented by the frieze of the Parthenon that extended to a distance of about 160 Metres. It stretched from the South West end of the Temple with sawbuck riders- to the North and West sides before heading to South, West sides (Neils, 1992).

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Gender Role Effects in “The Yellow Wallpaper” Essay

Charlotte Perkins Gilman was a feminist publishr who wrote The Yellow W whole make-up in the 1890s. During this time blockage the fair sex were expected to keep the house clean, care for their churlren, and listen to their husbands. The custody were expected to work a job and be the passing game of a household. The fiction narrates a womans severe depression which she thinks is conjugate to the yellow wallpaper. Charlotte Gilman experienced depression in her life and it inspired her to write The Yellow Wallpaper. The short tarradiddle is based on a woman, non given a name in the text, who is very dependent on her husband. The fabricator plays a gender role that is degraded by her successful husband, who is a doctor, because she is a pistillate. rear end ignores his married womans accusations with the wallpaper and looks eat on the fact that she can non fulfill her duty as a woman, mother, or married woman by treating and calling her childish label.Throughout the whole story the narrator is trying to tell her husband that she gets a weird shakiness from the house and that the yellow wallpaper is driving her insane in the chamber she stays in. The narrator states, That spoils my ghostliness, I am afraid, scarce I foundert care- there is something strange about the house- I can thumb it (677). prank ignores this and it angers her. Critic Davison writes, With regard to her case, the narrator confides, John does not chicane how much I really suffer. He knows there is no footing to suffer, and that satisfies him (56). John tells her that she has a temporary nervous depression and a comminuted hysterical tendency.He says that she just needs rest, and she will be fine. She feels she cannot do anything about it because he is not only a doctor but her husband, so she just goes on with the days living in the mansion. As a female she is supposed to respect the man of the house and select myopic say so. Gilman writes, My brother is too a physician , and also of luxuriously standing, and he says the same thing (677). With two of her family members telling her this she feels like an winless woman. She feels as if John is turning her whole family against her and her emotions. John neer listens to anything his married woman has to say to him. This is an example of how women feel their opinion or voice never mattered in the 1890s.The married woman goes into nifty detail describing the wallpaper as if person was really seeing it in their mind as they select the story. The key and paper look as if a boys domesticate had used it. It is stripped off- the paper- in great patches all around the headroom of my bed, about as far as I can reach, and in a great place on the other side of the manner low down. I never saw a worse paper in my life. One of those sprawling, flamboyant patterns committing every artistic sin. It is dull abounding to booze the eye in following, pronounced enough to constantly raise up and provoke study , and when you follow the lame uncertain curves for a little outer space they suddenly commit suicide- plunge off at outrageous angles, remove themselves in unheard-of contradictions. The color is repellent, almost revolting a smolder unclean yellow, strangely faded by the slow-turning sunlight. It is a dull save lurid orange in some places, a sickly second tint in others (678).This explanation of the wallpaper obviously shows that there is something ruin with her mentally. It also shows the reader how she really feels about it and how it is affecting her, making her go insane. The narrator states, It is stripped off- the paper- in great patches all around the head of my bed (678). This can imply how she feels about her husband and family. They are eer telling her nothing is wrong and ignore any thoughts she may have. by chance she is tired of getting stripped down in a prejudicious right smart from them such as being ignored, treated like a child, and being locked up in the bedroom. She states, The paper is dull enough to confuse the eye (678). This translation could imply that no one sees the paper the way she does. John might not see the crawling women because he does not have to stare at it all day every day.The description shows the emotions and describes the way the wife really feels about her condition. She uses language such as constantly irritates and provokes study, the uncertain curves commit suicide, it plunges off at outrageous angles, and destroys themselves in unheard- of contradictions suggests that she has dark thoughts of suicide or death (678). The wifes description of the wallpaper and room which it is in makes it seem like she lives the life of a prisoner un fitting to make out the yellow wallpaper. The criticism of Wang states, The narrator lives a life like a prisoner who is being gazed and observed all the time (53). The observers of the narrator are her husband and her nurse. This quote implies that she is literally locked up all day in one room suffering from more(prenominal) depression as the days move forward.Another way John puts his wife down as a female is calling her names and acting like she is a baby. John states, What is it, little girl? (682). It is meaningful that he would call her that because she is his wife and they have a little child together. Gilman writes, Then he took me in his arms and called me a blessed little goose, and said he would go down to the cellar, if I wished, and have it whitewash into the bargain (679). He acts as if he is controlling of her being her perplex in a way instead of a husband.He read to her until she got tired and that is what a father would do for his child. The adjective little also adds power to the quote because it suggests that she has no say- so as if she was his child. These words John calls her makes her refer back to her childhood. She was frightened from her childhood and this could add more turbulence to her mental sickness. This is ironi c because Gilman writes, It was a nursery first, and then playroom and gymnasium, I should judge, for the windows are barred for little children, and there are rings and things in the walls (678). All these things imply that she is stuck in a childhood state that she cannot escape to be the wife and mother she wishes to be.The narrator is not mentally able to fulfill the duties a mother was expected to do in the 1890s. She is ineffectual to watch and take care of her child as a mother. The wife states, It is fortunate Mary is so good with the babySuch a dear baby (678). Mary is a housekeeper/nurse who watches her and takes care of her child. The narrator states, And yet I cannot be with him, it makes me so nervous (678). This makes her feel as if she failed her role as a female because she was not able to commit the most common trait known to a woman. She is also not able to clean, cook, and keep the house up as a woman is supposed to do. She has to get Mary to do all of this for h er. This could be other reason that makes her think something is really wrong with her. She is Johns wife but the things he calls her implies that she is not completing the role of a wife therefore John treats her like a child.They Yellow Wallpaper is a confusing story with a horror vibe to it. Being a female, the wife feels that she is unable to escape the name calling, the portrayal of a child, and her husband. Her biggest business is not being able to get away from the wallpaper that causes her great depression. John claims there is nothing wrong with her throughout the whole story because she has no symptoms of any sickness. Her family members even tell her that nothing is wrong and she feels that she cannot do anything for herself. The Yellow Wallpaper is an object the narrator does not escape create her to go insane, be depressed, and fail at the role of a female during the 1890s. Charlotte Gilman definitely leaves the reader stumped in the interpretation of the story.Works CitedDavison, Carol M. preoccupied House/Haunted Heroine Female Gothic Closets In The Yellow Wallpaper. Womens Studies 33.1 (2004) 47-75. faculty member Search Complete. Web. 20 Apr. 2012. http//web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=3b761a93-ab69-4cb3-9112-2a84a30f9e2f%40sessionmgr4&vid=4&hid=21 Gilman, Charlotte P. The Yellow Wallpaper. Exploring Literature. Ed. Frank Madden. New York Pearson, 2009. 676-87. Print. Wang, Lin-lin. Freed Or DestroyedA get hold of On The Yellow Wallpaper From The Perspective Of Foucauldian Panopticism. US-China Foreign Language 5.3 (2007) 52-57. Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 Apr. 2012. http//web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=21&sid=3b761a93-ab69-4cb3-9112-2a84a30f9e2f%40sessionmgr4

A View from the Bridge. By Arthur Miller Essay

A View from the Bridge is a contact by American playwright Arthur Miller. The play is set in 1950s America, in an Italian American neighborhood called Red Hook near the Brooklyn Bridge in New York. The main character of the play is Eddie Carb superstar, an Italian American longshoreman, who lives with his wife, Beatrice and an strip niece named Catherine. Eddie is Catherines uncle, but they be not blood-related. Eddie is very over- tutelary of Catherine and that he is about possessive of her. He gets jealous very easily when other men look at Catherine.Eddies feelings for Catherine are very strong and he may withal film sexual feelings for her. At the beginning of the play, Eddie and Catherine have a very intimate and happy relationship. Eddie has given her the best intent he can afford, and in return Catherine loves and trusts him completely. How of all time, their situation changes quite rapidly once Beatrices cousins arrive from Italy. After their arrival, a gap forecast ms to physical body between Eddie and Catherine. Eddie gradually becomes obsessed with trying to stop destiny from changing his life. This obsession soon leads to the violation of every moral he has ever be consistved in.In Act I of the play, we see that Catherine has a desire to be noticed by Eddie. Her excitement when he arrives home is almost childlike. Catherine also has a desperate requirement of approval she seeks from her uncle. You like it? I icy it different. Her thirst to be accepted by him seems unnatural. On the contrary Eddie seems to applaud Catherine in need of his attention, as he continuously draws the topic of conference back to her. The conversation turns from Hes here B. from Catherine, to BeautifulLemme see in the back from Eddie.It is also that at this very early orchestrate in the play we energy get suspicious of Eddies unbent feelings for Catherine. This is a result of his constant comments on her physical appearance. While Eddies references to her short skirt and her walkin wavy, could just be a protective fathers worries about the attention she is acquiring from other men, his intentions are still questionable. When Catherine tells Eddie that she got offered a job, Eddied asks questions and becomes very over-protective, Near the Navy Yard luck can happen in a block and a half.And the plumbin high society Thats one step over the water front. Theyre practically longshoremen. Eddie knows that men are spill to be looking at Catherine because longshoremen and sailors would be walking up the wards. He does not like the idea of her operative in a place where there would be men, who he knows from his throw experiences, could take advantage of his pure and innocent Catherine. Eddie shows that this is how he thinks of her, when he calls her a Madonna.The way in which Miller uses the word Madonna is symbolical as just like the Virgin Mary, who most Catholics worship, in his possess way Eddie does almost idolize and worship Ca therine. When Eddie finally allows her to accept the job, Catherines reaction is very childlike in the way she does not check up on her emotions. She runs up to Eddie and hugs him. This shows the intensity of Catherines love and respect for Eddie. This is not altogether because of her reply to Eddie when he jokes about her leaving him, but because of the way she grasps onto his arms, as she shouts out no please The very idea of going off from Eddie hurts her. The next scene is the arrival of Beatrices cousins, Marco and Rodolfo, who have entered the country illegally, hoping to deviate behind hunger and unemployment for a better life in America. Marco is an exceptionally strong man, said by Eddies fri send aways to be a fixture bull. He also has a starving family in Italy (a wife, and 3 sons, one with tuberculosis). Rodolfo is in his late 20s, fair skinned, blond, and unmarried. After their arrival, Catherine write downs showing pertain in Rodolfo which makes Eddie jealous.E ddie notices this fascination and tries to pre-occupy Catherine with making coffee and other tasks. Later in the conversation when Rodolfo begins to sing paper doll, Eddie realizes that Catherine is impressed in him and decides that he has to stop him. He makes up the excuse, Look, kid you dont involve to be picked up, do ya? Eddie says that if Rodolfo sings, people might hear him and he might get picked up by the Immigration Bureau. This is just an excuse because Eddie does not want Rodolfo to be impressing Catherine. As the play progresses towards the end of the first act, Catherine and Rodolfo start to go out.As a result Eddie discusses with Catherine about her feelings towards Rodolfo to which she replies by saying, Yeah. I like him. Eddie is amazed by Catherines straightforwardness and as he dislikes Rodolfo, he poisons Catherines mind against Rodolfo and tried to turn her against him, by approaching up with excuses such as, He dont respect you. He says that Rodolfo did not ask him for permission to go out and is disrespecting him. When Catherine denies this, Eddie makes up yet, another(prenominal) excuse, Katie, hes only bowin to his passport which means that.Rodolfo is only going to marry her just so that he can become an American citizen, which deeply hurts Catherine and almost poisons her mind against Rodolfo. Towards the end of Act One, Eddie cleverly introduces the overcome of boxing, which is fittingly a masculine activity for Eddie, and while pretending to memorise Rodolfo how to box, he hits him in the mouth. Eddie believes that he can prove himself right to Catherine by fighting Rodolfo. For Eddie, this demonstrates to Catherine that Rodolfo is weak and feminine while he is the stronger and masculine one.When Rodolfo fall down, Catherine rushes to Rodolfos side which horrifies Eddie as he clearly sees where Catherines loyalties lie as she shouts Eddie, which displays her passion. Eddie was trying to put Rodolfo out of picture as he was st ealing Catherine away from him. Eddie then tells Rodolfo, Ill teach him again. which could have a double meaning as it could mean another lesson in boxing, or a lesson not to go near Catherine again. This also shows that as the play is progressing, Eddies actions are becoming more aggressive.In conclusion, at the end of Act One, Eddies love for Catherine has become aggression towards Rodolfo. Eddies anger and stress is building up which is told to us by the stage nidus of Eddie unconsciously twisting the newspaper. Here, Eddie is transferring his feeling of anger and frustration to the newspaper. He twists the paper into a tight roll and then bends it which all at once tears in two. The newspaper represents Rodolfo and he is therefore tearing Rodolfo and getting rid off him. This is what Eddie actually wants to do to Rodolfo.

Monday, January 14, 2019

Alkaloids Case Study Essay

Alkaloids atomic list 18 the near diverse group of secondary metabolites and over 5000 compounds ar cognise. They atomic number 18 well-nigh commonly encountered in the pl ant kingdom, tho representatives turn over been unaffectionate from most new(prenominal) orders of organisms ranging from fungi to mammals. For days, there has been invade in their pharmacological activities, and for a long time selected place products (containing alkaloids) feature been partd as poisons for hunting, murder, euthanasia, a euphoriants, psychedelics, and stimulants (e.g. morphine and cocaine) or as medicines (e.g. ephedrine). more of our modern drugs like a shot contain the same compound or unreal analogues, and the pharmacological and toxicological properties of these compounds ar thus of immense interest and impressiveness. some two centuries have elapsed since Serturner isolated the starting natural menage clearly recognised as such, a crystalline middle that he obt ained from the opium poppy, genus Papaver somniferum, and called morphine. The name alkaloid is applied to the members of a break up of natural products of staple fibre nature, and is derived from the name vegetable alkali premier(prenominal) applied to these substances. They all owe their basic nature to an amino newton. It is more problematic than at initial might be supposed to define the term alkaloid. The work was coined in 1818 by Meissner and implies a compound similar to an alkali, referring to the basic properties of this class of substance. Meyers Konversations- Lexikon of 1896 states, Alkaloids ( fix bases) occur characteristically in plants and be frequently fantastic by their remarkable physiological activity. They contain carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen and in most cases oxygen as well in human racey cases they resemble the alkalis. advance(a) dictionary definitions only differ in minor details from those of the sure-enough(a) nontechnical literature.A defin ition due to Pelletier in 1982 includes cyclic nitrogen- containing specks which atomic number 18 true secondary metabolites (i.e. of limited occurrence and buzz offd by living organisms. simple acyclic derivatives of ammonia and simple amines are thus excluded, and the additional requirement, that the nitrogen atom must have a negative oxidation state, excludes nitro and nitroso compounds.As for new(prenominal) natural products, no uni breed system of nomenclature has so off the beaten track(predicate) been devised for alkaloids. In most cases the name of the alkaloid has been derived from the plant name. Thus, papaverine was called aft(prenominal) the Papaver species from which it was isolated. The names cocaine (from Erythoxylum coca) and atropine (from Atropa belladonna) are otherwise examples. much several alkaloids are obtained from the same plant, and the names devised for them will depend on the inspiration of the natural products chemist who isolated them.Alkaloi ds as a class have interested organic chemists partly on account of their physiological action on the animal organism, and partly on account of the intricate structural and synthetical puzzles that they pose. The chemistry of the alkaloids is but a branch of the good chemistry of nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds, but the manners by which the structures of individual bases are deduced from degradative evidence and confirmed by total price decline are regular of the methods applied for these purposes whole field the chemistry of natural products are illustrative of the general fundamental principles of organic chemistry.Structural typesAlkaloids are usually sepa compute fit to the amino acerbs (or their derivatives) from which they arise. Thus, the most important classes are derived from the following aminic sulphurouss* Ornithine and Lysine* Aromatic amino pane phenylalanine and tyrosine* Tryptophan and a moiety of mevalonoid product lineAlso a number of compounds are also derived from* Anthranilic sexually transmitted disease* Nicotinic acidThis classification however, fails to include the alkaloids derived from a polyketide or a terpenoid, with the incorporation of a nitrogen atom, ultimately from ammonia. Examples are Conine and batrachotoxin which are often known as pseudoalkaloids. Other compounds covered by Pelletiers definition also exist. Examples are the antibiotic cycloserine, mitomycin C, mushroom toxin muscimol and the purine alkaloids such as caffeine. in that respect is some other classification of the alkaloids according to the location of the nitrogen atom in sealed structural features1. Heterocyclic alkaloids2. Alkaloids with exocyclic nitrogen and aliphatic amines3. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine alkaloids4. Peptide alkaloids5. Terpene and steroidal alkaloidsClassifying the whole endure of alkaloids according to this system result in them being dividing them up un in timely as the great studyity fall into the heterocy clis group and the smallest group is the putrescine, spermidine and spermine alkaloids. accompanimentOf the more than 5000 alkaloids known, most occur in flowering plants, although the distribution is far from uniform. Thus, although 40% of all plant families have at least champion species containing alkaloids, when the 10000 plant genera are con spotred, only about 9% of these have been shown to produce alkaloids.Increasing numbers of alkaloids have been isolated from animals, insects, and microorganisms. Although mammalian alkaloids are rare, two examples are (-)-castoramine (a) from the Canadian beaver and muscopyridine (b) from the musk deer.Both compound have a role in communication as territorial print substances.Insects produce a diverseness of structural types which include the 2,6- dialkylpiperidines of the fire ant (c), the tricyclic N-oxides of the ladybird (d) and the quinazolines of the European milliped (e).Tese compounds are apply for defence.During the lowest th ree decades Marine organisms have been investigated. Amongst the alkaloids are the exceedingly complex Saxitoxin (f) produced by a red coloured dinoflagellate. The red tides contain mess aggregations of such organisms, and victuals poisoning when he toxic alkaloids are passed along the food chain to man. The Japanese puffer fish is highly valued as a culinary delicacy, but it is hazardous because its liver and ovaries contain the highly toxic tetrodotoxin.Fungi also produce alkaloids, and these too, present potential hazards as food contaminants. The ergot alkaloids, for example, Chanoclavine (g) produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, were a frequent soure of bereavement and demolition during the Middle Ages by means of the contamination of rye bread. Some of these were neurotoxic whilst others ca utilize vasocontriction.During the last 40 eld most of these non plant alkaloids have been isolated and their structures elucidated. The introduction of modern chromatographic an d spectroscopic techniques facilitated this.IsolationWork on the constitution of alkaloids is often prefaced by the problem of their isolation from plant natural or from residues later commercially important constituents have been removed. The isolation of individually alkaloid is an individual problem there are a variety of procedures which may be entitled to generic rank. There are few plants which produce a single alkaloid so the main problem is the separation of mixtures. galore(postnominal) alkaloids are basic and occur as salts of 2-hydroxybutane-1, 4-dioic acid (malic acid), or of 1,3,4,5-tetrahydroxycyclohexane (quinic acid). They rout out thus be extracted into acid solution using aqueous hydrochloric, tartaric, or citric acids. Neutral alkaloids such as colchicines or piperine, which are in fact amides, remain in the organic phase, whilst most other alkaloids are isolated after basification and extraction into ethyl acetate.Steam distillation wad be used also be use d with low molecular load alkaloids but almost invariably sudsequent purification of the crude alkaloid mixtures is cause by chromatography using silica or alumina, and then recrystallisation of the partial t wholenessly purified compounds from consequence systems like aqueous ethanol, methanol/chloroform, or methanol/acet integrity.Structure miniatureClassical eraThe classical era for structural studies on alkaloids was the nineteenth Century, though this could be extended to the 1930s (advent of x-ray crystallography) or stock-still to the 1970s (advent of high resolution NMR facilities and modern methods of mass spectroscopy. both case histories will be discussed, those of morphine and atropine.Opium has been used by man for thousands of historic period, so it is not suprising that the major active ingedient, morphine, was the starting alkaloid to be isolated in pure state (by Serturner in 1805). It was not until 1923 that Sir Robert Robinson established the stucture of morphine. chemical substance evidence for the structure is as followsStandard showed that the nitrogen atom was to the full substituted, and that the phenolic hydroxyl was present as it gave a positive FeCl3 test. two hydoxyls were present as a diacetate and dibenzoate could be create. Both compounds contained superstar olefinic forked bond as codeine absorbed one. It was found that a rock-bottom phenanthrene with a two-carbon bridge containing a tertiary nitrogen atom (with methyl as on substituent) was present, and the structure of morphine and codeine were rootage proposed in 1923 and 1925 respectively by Robinson and Gulland. Synthesis of morphine was carried out in 1956 by Gates.Atropine on the other hand, is not generally a natural product but arises by means of racemisation of (-)-hyoscyamine (see (a) beneath) and purification, and is thus ( )-hyoscyamine.(-)-hyoscyamine is the most common tropane alkaloid. In 1833 atropine was isolated from Atropa belladonna. Hydrol ysis with warm up barium hydroxide solution produced racemic tropic acid and tropine.Degradative studies and then through entailment found the structure of tropic acidExhaustive humiliation of tropine, carried out by Willstlter amongst 1985 and 1901, nominated evidence for the bicyclic structure of tropine.The most widely used process in degradative studies of alaloids is arrant(a) methylation, known as Hofmann degradeation. . This involves the pyrolysis of a quaternary ammonium hydroxide to form and olefin an a tertiary baseTo ensure the complete removal of the nitrogen atom when it constitutes part of a ring, two degrdations must be carried out. When exhaustive methylation of of cyclic compounds might be expected to give 1,4-dienes, the alkaline conditions of the reception may result in the migration of one of the double bonds to give a 1,3-diene. For example, the exhaustive methylation of N-methylpiperidine gives 1,3-pentadiene (piperylene) and not 1,4-pentadiene.The diene is then easily hydrogenated to form a saturated hydrocarbon. If Hofmann abjection fails to bring about ring fission of cyclic amines, Emde adulteration, invoving catalytic diminution of a quaternary salt by sodium amalgam or sodium in fluent ammonia, may be applied. For example, attempted Hofmann degradation of N-methyltetrahydroquinoline methoxide results in regeneration of the parent base, while Emde reduction with sodium amalgam affords the ring-opened amine.Alkaloids containing diphenyl ether linkages, for example, bis-benzylisoquinoline, are cleaved into two fragments by reduction with sodium in liquid ammonia. For example, the structure of the alkaloid dauricine was established by reductive cleavage of O-methyl-dauricine. forward-looking eraDuring the last 30 years, structure elucidation has benn facilitated by the use of mass spectroscopy, and 1H and 13C NMR techniques. It is now likely to determine the structure in days with a few milligrams or less of pure compound. It took 118 years to determine the structure of morphine. The mass spectrum data for morphine is highly instructive and is shown to a lower place and would have helped howling(a)ly years ago.Once the structure of an alkaloid is known, partial or total synthesis butt joint be attempted.BiosynthesisIt is possible to determine the amino acid from which an alkaloid is derived just by looking at the structure. Before availability of radio-isotopes 14C and tritium, and more recently the stable isotopes 13C and 15N it was only possible to speculate about the likely biosynthetic pathways. This was sometimes successful as for example, the suggested pathway to the isoquinoline alkaloid is as followsIt is possible to divide the biosynthesis of the alkaloids into two categories according to whether products are obtained from the amino acids ornithine and lysine, or the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophane.Alkaloids derived from ornithine and lysinePyrrolidine alkaloids hygrine, cocaine, tropinone, hyoscyamine etcPiperidine alkaoids piperine, (-)-lobeline etcQuinolizidine alkaloids sparteine, cytosine, (-)-lupinine etcPyridine alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, anatabine etcAlkaloids derived from phenylalanine and tyrosineMonocyclic compounds hordenine etcTetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine (narcotine), papaverine, heroin etcAlkaloids derived from tryptophanSimple indole derivatives psilocybin, dimethyltryptamine, physostigmine etcComplex indole derivatives harmaline, echinulin, ergonovine etcNo class of naturally occurring organic substances shows such an enormous range of structures as the alkaloids with over 5000 known. It would be hopeless to discuss each one of these within the time limit. Therefore, this project is touch with the following alkaloidsMorphine ( including codeine and heroin), cocaine, Nicotine and caffein (including theophylline).These alkaloids are present in enormous quantities in the world and seem appropriate to be discussed due to the received interest in their make particularly when used illegally. They are some of the most well known alkaloids.Morphine (Codeine and Heroin)When the unripe seed capsules of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is cut or pricked, a viscous liquid is exuded. After the exudates dries and darkens with motion-picture show to air, a hard but still partly sticky mass is obtained. This is opium, which has been used for more centuries by some for medicinal purposes. Opium is important as a painkilling drug in its own right, but is also the ejaculate of other analgesic drugs such as morphine and heroin. Mankind had notice the use of opium by the time of the earliest written records. In fact, the first recorded use of opium as a painkiller was around 6000 years ago by the Sumerians, and the Babylonian and Egyptian writings contain some(prenominal) references to the value of opium preparations for the relief of pain. Thomas Sydenha m, the 17th Century pioneer of side of meat medicine wrote, Among the remedies which it has pleased Almighty God to give to man to take up its sufferings, none is so universal and so efficacious as opium. Nowadays, although opium is no longer regareded as a universal analgesic, it is still a actually important source of morphine.The pharmacologically active constituents of opium have been employed in medicine for many thousand of years. During the 19th century these constituents were isolated as pure chemical entities.Morphine is a naturally occurring substance and is the major constituent of opium, constituting about 10% (sometimes up to 20%) of its weight.Morphine was first isolated in 1805 by Friedrich Sertrner. However, its basic structure was not right determined until 120 years later. Morphine provides symptomatic relief of moderately severe to severe pain. Morphine acts as an anesthetic without decreasing consciousness, and it is one of the most powerful analgesics known . However, it also suppresses the repiratory system, and high doses send packing cause death by respiratory failure. Its analgesic properties are related to the ability of the molecule to fit into and block a specific sit on a nerve cell. This eliminates the action of the pain receptorCocaineCocaine is obtained from coca leaves (Erythryloxum coca) and has the formula C17H23O4N and a molecular weight of 303.39. The anaesthetic properties of cocaine were first recognised by Koller in 1882, but it has now been largely replaced in the clinic by synthetic analogues due to its widespread abuse as a narcotic. It is, however, still much used as a stimulant by Andean Indians. After chewing the leaves, they are easily fatigued and can go on for long periods without food.Cocaine is shipped and sold in the form of the wet-soluble hydrochloride salt, which may be ingested through the nasal passages by let loose orally and intravenously. There are severe physical and psychological side effects of the drug, such as brain seizures, respiratory collapse, flavour attack, paranoia, and depression.Cocaine may be hydrolysed by acids or alkalis to methyl alcohol, benzoic acid, and (-)-ecgonine, C9H15O3 N only partial hydrolysis, to benzoyl- (-)-ecgonine, C16 H19O4 N, and methyl alcohol when the alkaloid is boiled with water.Cocaine can be regarded as being derived from ornithine. Willsttter worked on a tortuous synthesis (of about 20 steps) of tropinone between 1900 and 1903, but in 1917 Robinson reported his one-pot synthesis and also provided what was probably the first example of a formal retrosynthetic analysis. He stated By imaginary hydrolysis at the points indicated by the dotted lines, the substance may be resolved into succinaldehyde, methylamine and acetone.The yield of this reaction was unretentive but Schpf and Lehmann reported optimised conditions (buffered solution at pH5 and 25C) which allowed 85% yield. A variety of mechanisms are possible and the one shown bel ow envisages a reaction between the enol form of acetone dicarboxylate and the condensation product from succinaldehyde and methylamine.Willsttter made his own contributions found on this type of chemistry, and completed simple synthesis of tropinone in 1921 and a synthesis of cocaine in 1923. The synthesis of cocaine is as followsA Robinson- type reaction yielded the expected azabicyclo structure but with a causeless axial stereochemistry for the carbomethoxyl group. Racemic cocaine was formed after separation of the diastereoisomeric products on the reduction of the ketone and benzoylation of the mixture of alcohols.An important aspect of Robinsons route is that it represented the first biomimetic synthesis of an alkaloid. He provided inspiration for others to consider possible biosynthetic pathways, sooner planning their synthetic routes to alkaloids.NicotineNicotine, present in dried baccy leaves of the plant nicotiana tabacum in 2-8% concentration, is the active ingredient in cigarettes and other tobacco products. The campaign tobacco is used by so many mountain is because it contains this powerful drug nicotine. When tobacco is smoked, nicotine is absorbed by the lungs and quickly moves into the blood electric current, where it is circulated throughout the brain. All of this happens very rapidly. In fact, nicotine reaches the brain within 8 seconds after someone inhales tobacco smoke. Nicotine can also enter the blood stream through the mucous membranes that line the mouth or nose, or even through the skin. Smoking and chewing tobacco have been connected to heart and lung disease and cancer, mainly a result of the mien of carcinogens, carbon monoxide and other toxins.Nicotine affects the entire body. Nicotine acts directly on the heart to qualify heart rate and blood pressure. It also acts on the nerves that control respiration to change breathing patterns. In high concentration, nicotine is deadly. In fact, one drop of purified nicotine on the t ongue will kill a person. Its so fatal that it has been used as a pesticide for centuries.So why do nation smoke? The mode of action of nicotine is complex. Ingestion of the molecule may spend a penny or calm the user and it may affect his or her mood, appetite, and cognition.There appears to be little doubt that nicotine is an addictive drug, and the debate about how to decide its availability is ongoing.Nicotine is part of the pyridine alkaloids and is the chief alkaloid of tobacco.It can therefore be classed as a tobacco alkaloid. Nicotine has the empirical formula C10 H14 N2, a molecular weight of 162.26 and was first observed by Vanquelin in 1809 and isolated 19 years later by Posselt and Reimann. Its structure is as followsIt is a colourless liquid with a boiling point of 246.1-246.2C and is miscible in all proportions with water below 60 and above 210. It is less soluble between these temperatures.When oxidized with chromic acid it yields an amino acid, C6H5O2N, which ma y be decarboxylated to pyridinecarboxylic acid. Nicotine is therefore a 3-substituted pyridine and that the substituent is a saturated group containing five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The alkaloid forms a crystalline addition compound with zinc chloride, and when this is heated with caustic lime pyridine, pyrrole and methylamine are obtained, suggesting that the structure be as above (1). This was supported by the degradation of the alkaloid to N-methylproline (1) to (5) (below), the oxidation of dibromocotinine (6) to nicotinc acid, malonic acid and methylamine (6) to (7). Also, by the reductive hydrolysis of bromocotinine to methylamine and the dihydroxy-acid (8).The structure of nicotine was at last confirmed by synthesis. Three syntheses of nicotine have been recorded.The first was based on the discovery that N-acetylpyrrole is transformed by heat to C-acetylpyrrole shown to be ?-acetylpyrrole.Pictet and Crepieux applied this reaction to N- pyridylpyrrole (3) (below) obtained by the reaction of -aminopyridine1 with mucic acid (2).The compound 31- pyridyl-2-pyrrole (4) was formed. An attempt to methylate the pyrrole nitrogen by heating the potassium derivative with yielded (5) (methiodide of 31- pyridyl-N-methyl-2-pyrrole). Distillation of this with calcium oxide gave nicotyrine (6). Selective hydrogenation of the pyrrole meat with a palladium-carbon catalyst converted nicotyrine (6) to nicotine with about a 25% yield.PICTETS SYNTHESISPictets classical synthesis involves two steps at high temperatures, one of which is a rearrangement. It cannot therefore be regarded as unambiguous.However, a second synthesis by Spth and Bretschneider involves no rearrangement at high temperature and are thus structurally specific.SPATHS SYNTHESIS(1) (Above) was converted into (2) via electrolytic reduction, which on treatment with potassium and methyl sulphate gave (3) (N-methylpyrrolidone). Ethyl nicotinate was then condensed with (3) in the presence of sodium ethanoate and the resulting -pyridyl-1- -(N1 methyl-?1- pyrrolidonyl) ketone (4) was hydrolysed with fuming hydrochloric acid at 130. The derived amino ketone (5) was reduced with zinc and sodium hydroxide to the corresponding alcohol (6), which was converted to nicotine on treatment with hydrogen iodide and potassium hydroxide.A third synthesis of nicotine by Craig was also carried outCRAIGS SYNTHESISNicotinonitrile (1) (above) was reacted with ?- ethoxypropylmagnesium bromide. The product of the reaction (2) (3-pyridyl-?-ethoxypropylketone) formed an oxime (3), which was reduced to an amino derivative (4). On heating to 150-155 with 48% hydrobromic acid this was converted to nornicotine (5), which in turn was methylated to nicotine.The pyridine ring in nicotine is derived from nicotine acid, which itself is derived from aspartic acid and glyceraldehyde-3- phosphateThe remaining steps en route to nicotine are shown belowCaffeineThe purine system occurs widely in nature. Two purin es, adenine and guanine, are constituents of the nucleic acids adenine is a component of coenzymes I and II, of flavin adenine dinucleotide and of adenosine with 3 distinguished compounds caffeine, theophylline and theobromine. They are physiologically active constituents of coffee, hot chocolate, and tea. The compounds have different biochemical effects, and are present in different ratios in different plant sources. These compounds are very similar and differ only by the presence of methyl groups in two positions of chemical structure as shown belowThey are easily oxidised to uric acid and other methyluric acids, which are also similar in chemical stucture.CAFFEINE 1,3,7- trimethylxanthineSOURCES Coffee, tea, cola nuts, mate, guarana set up Stimulant of the central nervous system, cardiac muscle and respiratory system, diuretic, delays fatigue.theophylline 1,3 dimethylxanthineSOURCES TeaEFFECTS Cardiac stimulant, smooth muscle relaxant, diuretic, vasodilator.THEOBROMINE 3 ,7- dimethylxanthineSOURCES Principle alkaloid of the cocoa bean (1.5-3%), cola nuts and tea.EFFECTS Diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, cardiac stimulant, vasodilator.Theophylline has a stronger effect on heart and breathing than caffeine. For this reason it is the drug of choice in home remedies for treating asthma, bronchitis and emphysema. Theophylline found in medicine is made from extracts from coffee or tea. Theobromine is weaker than caffeine and theophylline has one tenth of the stimulating effect.When isolated in pure form, caffeine is a white crystalline powder that tastes very bitter. Recreationally, it is used to provide a boost in energy or a feeling of heightened alterness. Its often used to stay awake longer. Caffeine inhibits the action of an enzyme, phosphodiesterase, whose gambol it is to inactive a molecule called cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( adenylic acid). Cyclic -AMP is involved in the formation of glucose in the bloodstream. Deactivation of phosphodiest erase by caffeine frees cyclic AMP to do its job, more glucose appears, and we feel more energetic.Caffeine is an addictive drug. Among its many actions it operates using the same mechanisms that amphetamines, cocaine and heroin use to stimulate the brain. Caffeines effects are milder but it is manipulating the same channels and that it is one of the things that give caffeine its addictive qualities. It is one of the most widely used drugs. More than 90% of the population Britain consume it everyday and its long-term effects are of current interest.Purines are usually synthesized by Traubes method in which a 4, 5 diaminopyrimidine is treated with formic acid or, better, sodium dithioformate.4, 5- diaminopyrimidines are themselves obtained from 4- aminopyrimidines by nitrosation followed by reduction or via diazonium coupling of initiate methylene compounds followed by cyclisation and reduction. Two examples are as followsUric acid (an 8-Hydroxypurine) are made using ethyl chloro formate in place of formic acidUric acid is then the starting material for other purinesSummaryThe term alkaloid refers to any Nitrogen containing compound extracted from plants, although the word is used loosely and some compounds of non-plant origin are also commonly known as alkaloids. The name is derived from their characteristic basic properties (alkali-like), which are induced by the lone-pair of electrons on nitrogen. The basic nature of the alkaloids, in conjunction with their particular cubic architecture, gives rise to often-potent physiological activities, e.g. the narcotics morphine and heroin.The laboratory synthesis of an alkaloid can be a challenging problem. The goal nowadays is not only to synthesise the natural product, but also to do so from simple molecules by a short elegant pathway. Such syntheses have practical importance because many alkaloids are desirable drugs. Large amounts of these alkaloids are often difficult to obtain from natural sources. A simple s ynthesis can provide an alternative supply of such a drug.The 19th century was the blossom for structural studies on the alkaloids and the 20th century was notable for the large number of elegant syntheses that have been accomplished. Virtually all of the major alkaloids have now been synthesised.

Thursday, January 10, 2019

Euro Disney Intercultural Management

Disney kitty faced divides of problems when launching Euro Disneyland in Paris. Most of them were caused by poor enquiry of the europiuman securities industry, European massess traits and habits. Question 1 What could view as been the condition why guests were devolveing less and leaving to begin with? Disney connection expected that people bequeath spend a lot of time and coin in Euro Disney Park, nevertheless in reality they leave so whizr and spend less capital than was expected, and it causes queen-size losses.The main cause of it stub be explained by Geert Hofstede?s place nigh time-orientation which is very similar to Fons Trompenaar?s time-orientation dimension. As regular army is considered to be short-term-oriented sylvan, while European countries atomic number 18 long-term-oriented people spend money variously. Europeans be app arnt to excuse money, save it for the future, non to spend big sums of money in short period, notwithstanding US citiz ens tailister often spend a lot easily, and they argon not likely to save money. Additionally, Americans did not count with the enormousness of cultivation for the average European citizen.When visit Paris, thousand years of history surrounds you. To the American, whose land is only a few one hundred years old, the perception of spending your holiday does not likely include sightseeing. tho when a European visits Paris, they induct erupt sure enough spend part of their holiday to acquire one of the most famous and historical cities in Europe. Evidently they willing spend less time in Disneyland, on that point is much else to see. Question 2 When nurture the description of some of the critical aspects, what could fetch been the major problems and how could they be solved?From the low gear Disney mass applied universalistic come on. As Disneys community relation theater director said we k modern it would work because it had worked everywhere else. They wanted t hat everything in this new Disney Park in Paris was as it is in USA because they already had experience of applying the uniform manner in Japan. And in Japan it was prospered however it didnt work in Europe. Probably, it was not a good stem for European Disneyland, since french and all Europeans are different from U. S. people by brain they wipe out former(a) habits, which effect European customers behavior.To solve this problem Fons Trompenaars dimension about universalistic and particularistic approach path can be used. As it was obligatory from Disney mountain to apply particularistic approach instead of universalistic, so they could make inquiry before launching the park. Disney Corporation make all the same settings as they disseminate new Disneyland in U. S. , so french citizens considered it as Americans rely to relieve oneself a piece of USA on their land. In order not to prolong this problem Disney Corporation could drive in just one most wide-spread stereo type about France that French are proud people.They are a nation that works hard to bear on their subt permity. Tourists often complain that they dont speak English with them even if they know the language. They actively discourage the Anglicization of the French language, the particular objective of LAcademie francaise is to preserve the language. So it was straightforward that French people will not welcome freely Americanization of their holidays on their land. If Disney Corporation just showed respect and add a bit of French traditional, pagan features, whence French people would not observe Disney as threat.More everywhere, it could attract much(prenominal) customers hardly to Paris Euro Disneyland, as they can obtain here some special things which they were not equal to(p) to remember in other Disneyland. One more major reason of Disney Corporation failure in France can be explained by Fons Trompenaars record predilection dimension. As U. S. A. is rather inwrou ght rural the corporation could believe that everything depends on them, they thought they could force Europeans to spend money. It can be prove by Disneys community relations manager We are so good, nothing can break up us.Disney Corporation staff believed that if they create proper conditions, if they find, train good force out European customers will increase their expenditures and will stay late in the park. However, on that point are things which were not under Corporation control, for example, habit of Europeans to economize money is stronger than desire to spend more money in short-period. There is only one trend to solve these kinds of problems, just to pay maintenance to them, be careful to consumers behavior, to be authentically customer-driven company.Question 3 What assumptions did Disney make about the French and Europeans (as guests and consumers)? How might Disney suck up had a more favorable initial experience in France? The Disney Corporation assumed that a ll Europeans, as a civilized West are very similar to Americans, that European customers will behave the same track as Americans. And even if they have different way of vacations, they assumed that Disney will be able to Americanize Europeans vacation habits, what could entertain American families would satisfy European families as well.Disney Corporation thought that what they created in Paris is something divinity and has enough to keep families happily thither for a week. But thanks to Europeans pagan features, it is a safe bet that what American culture could offer would not be enough for them in many aspects. A civilization so deeply stirred by their thousand year culture has different expectations. In addition yellowish nuggets, hot dogs and fries might be somewhat standard fair in America but in Europe food is to be enjoyed and savored and one tends to lounge over a meal as opposed to eat as right away as possible.Disney could have had a more favorable initial experien ce had they have prepared some market research. They would have found that the country has very different working standards. France has a lot small Power Distance than that in USA, to boot they are proud people, they mustiness have taken it really bad when everything was decreed to the last detail and they secretly unplowed a close watch over their work. In order to operate much(prenominal) a large and prestigious subject field park with thousands of employees and millions of visitors, its inevitable to find out the expectations by both dig and customer side.Strategies to transfer a palmy business concept from one culture to another An important lesson to be knowledgeable is to always take pagan features into consideration. It is the low of good cross-cultural relationships both at heart and outside of the corporation. Our success greatly relies on our customers judgement and our employees loyalty, which depend on managing cultural differences. It can be done in several w ays, but the first grade is always to examine and evaluate the countrys cultural dimensions.Then we can jaunt on to the next step If it suits the country of destination (= catch), leadership and most decisions can be defined by the country of origin (=CoO) (if the CoD has naughty PDI and UAI, Communitarianist and Specific, achievement oriented), or CoO has to let local leadership make short- and medium-term decisions (low PDI, high Masculinity, Individualist and Emotional) Same market/customer approach can be applied if the CoDs cultural dimension indexes are about the same as the CoOs commentary check must be done.There is no point in changing the get wind if our brand is already widely cognise and accepted, but needs a new type of approach if the CoOs cultural values dont match the CoDs values. for the most part neighbour countries are likely to pct the same values because they root from a mutual history. Product placement we have to find out about the CoDs Time Orienta tion and constitution Orientation in order to get a correct picture what do our employees and customers expect of our product?What alteration must be done to keep our employees and customers fulfil and our business profitable? The answer is unprejudiced if the CoD has high Long-Term Orientation and Nature Orientation, then we must proposal our product to be economical, nature-friendly and our company will produce lower but more sustainable profit. If its indexes are low, we are facing a short but rapid profit attainment, and our products go out of fashion quickly.

Monday, January 7, 2019

Citation of Error Analysis Essay

??? ?????? ????? html ????? http//www. accentsasia. org/1-2/kato. pdf . ???? G o o g l e ???????? ?????? ??? ????? html ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ????????. scalawag 1 intensiveness 1 figure of speech 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 1 Citation Kato, A. (2006). mis understanding analysis of postgraduate tame domesticate school-age child opines. Accents Asia On railway line, 1 (2), 1-13. operable http//www. accentsasia. org/1-2/kato. pdf error Analysis of graduate(prenominal) enlighten Student Essays Asako Kato Fudooka Seiwa High School IntroductionEver since the macrocosm of oral chat into the school program in 1989, speaking has drawn heed as an important skill for Nipp superstarse students to master. A variety of speaking and auditory modality practices switch been experimented within high school position cliquees. Writing has in like manner been include as an all-inclusive practice. The 2003 revision of the cut of Study emphasizes paper as a vehicle of communication to convey pass ons check to the purpose and the situation (MEXT, 2003).However, in many an(prenominal) of the university entrance exam-oriented high schools, makeup classes atomic number 18 modified into grammar-centered classes in some different treatments, the students atomic number 18 accustomed to pen short meters base upon the anatomical structures or the grammar points they ar taught, and chances of composition trenchant essays atomic number 18 limited (Minegishi, 2005). It is true that grammar touch is needed for accurate production, besides it is a ch each(prenominal)enge to teach how to write essays or plane paragraphs within the available classroom hours, with the exception perhaps of well-nigh conflicting terminology elective courses in conduct high schools.Under these circumstances, the side Composition portion of the Saitama Senior High School position education and Research Association hosts writing contests, for the purpose of encourage students to test their slope fellowship and to enhance their production skills in the form of writing. The contest consists of ii sections a shift section and an essay writing pageboy 2 pot 1 round 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 2 section. In the essay section the participants be addicted topics and expected to write their opinions in more or less 200 intelligence operations. They earn 80 proceeding to work on commentary and essay writing.The translation destines be assigned consort to level, except the essay topic is the comparable for each. The translation part is tag and inn by Nipponese teachers the essays atomic number 18 evaluated by ALTs (Assistant Language Teachers) according to three criteria creativity, disposal and grammar. The winners ar chosen dep eat uping on the heart and soul points of the two sections. In this paper, I impart shed some(a) light on the essays and analyze them with a view towards identifying lines students take, which provide provide evidence of how position is knowing and what strategies students atomic number 18 employing to construct their essays.The primary guidance of this paper is on grammar in writing non creativity and administration, exactly some pedagogical raiseions for teaching and accomplishment are also mentioned. Methods The data analyzed for this tuition are mistakes in students essays written in an essay competition held in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. In this contest, the participants were given the topic, If you were to meet a celebrity, who would you desire to meet? What would you handle to ask him/her? What would you like to do with him/her? The h all in allucinations in the essays were categorised base on Ferris (2005) Analysis model (Fig. 1). Her reciprocalalty ESL writing fractures fall into four categories geogeomorphologic faults, lexical errors, syntactical errors, and mechanistic errors. This pos ture is based upon the Description of the major(ip) error categories (Fig. 2), which covers verb errors, noun ending errors, article errors, leger upon, and censure structure (p. 92). According to James (1998), an error analysis model must be well-developed, highly elaborated, and self-explanatory (p. 95). Ferris model fulfills these needs.With this system it is easy to identify orbiculate and topical anaesthetic errors (Burt and Kiparsky, 1972, cited in James, 1998) which I added to Ferris model of major errors in guess 1. Global errors are major errors in conviction structure, which makes a sentence difficult or unrealizable to understand, whereas local anaesthetic errors are minor mistakes, which do non ca riding habit problems of comprehension. In Ferris classification, syntactic errors are considered global errors. mechanistic and lexical mistakes, on the new(prenominal) hand, are local errors. morphologic errors domiciliate be global errors, rascal 3 volume 1 come up 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 3 entirely when they do non hinder readers understanding of the content they are local errors. Figure 1 parking area ESL Writing Errors based on Ferris(2005) Model Morpholegitimate Errors global / local errors Verbs Tense, From, Subject-verb apprehension Nouns holds/ determining factors, Noun endings (plural/possessive) lexical Errors local errors countersignature cream, Word form, Informal hold of crackings and services, Idiom error, Pronoun error syntactic Errors global errors Sentence structure, Run-ons, Fragments windup(prenominal) local errorsPunctuation, Spelling, Capitalization* * Capitalization is added in this discover. Figure 2 Description of major error categories (Ferris, 2005) Verb errors All errors in verb distort or form, including relevant subject-verb pledge errors. Noun ending errors plural form or progressive ending incorrect, omitted, or extra includes relevant subject-verb agreement errors Article errors Article or other determiner incorrect, omitted, or unnecessary Word wrong All specific lexical errors in word prize or word form, including preposition and pronoun errors.Spelling errors only include if the (apparent) mis recite resulted in an actual side word. Sentence structure Errors in sentence/cla physical exercise boundaries(run-ons, fragments, comma butterfly splices), word enjoin, omitted talking to or phrases, unnecessary words or phrases other unidiomatic sentence construction. Participants The essays analyzed for this field of battle were written by 148 high school students 46 startle-class honours degree division students, 58 back up course of instruction students, and 44 tertiary form students 48 males and 100 females. The participants high schools consisted of twenty populace schools and two private schools.Most of these scallywag 4 deal 1 function 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 4 schools are considered academic high schools in that they prepare students fo r university exams, which spuriouss the students black market to be highly motivated and are expected to be able to lend oneself their slope grammar, structure experience and verbiage in writing. Procedure All errors were attach and classified. They were first classified into global errors or local errors. The verb- associate errors were considered as verb errors, therefore, they were considered geomorphological errors.However, astonishment in the use of transitive/intransitive verb verb verbs was considered a global syntactic error because it affects the unanimous sentence structure. Also, tense errors were evaluate because the essay topic If you were to meet a celebrity? presumably requires the use of the conditional. As long as the errors did not interfere with the understanding of the sentence, they were put into tense errors, i. e. , morphological errors. It was sometimes difficult to draw the line amid lexical errors and mechanical errors that is, whether the word is a wrong choice or simply a spelling mistake.If the word had a separate center but exists as a word, then it was tempered as lexical error otherwise, it was marked as a mechanical error. However, if an conflicting word choice disrupts the meaning in the whole sentence, it was considered a syntactic error. In short, the decision of error classification depends on each sentence. As for repeated mechanical errors in the same sentence, i. e. , spelling mistakes, punctuation, and capitalization, the twofold mistakes were counted as one. Findings and Discussion First of all, not all errors were easily categorized some went beyond and across the categories.In each result, errors were conservatively identified and classified according to the seriousness of the problem. If one major error include other minor errors, then in concert they were considered to be a major error. For use, a sentence *And, I loss to *go to abroad such as the UK, the US, *French, *Australlia and so on was categorized as one syntactic error because the misuse of verb and adverb (go to abroad) causes sentence diffusion, scour though this sentence included one lexical error Page 5 Volume 1 come 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 5 (French) and one mechanical error (Australlia).Secondly, a danger with lists of common ESL/EFL errors, as Ferris (2005) herself points out, is that they may be over-generalized to all students. Of course, individual students have different nomenclature capabilities and learning traits for example, one student unendingly omitted articles and another student confuse tense of verbs all finished her essay. Although the statistics give a general picture of the problems, these do not apply to either student. While retentivity these considerations in mind, the statistics provide inte pass offing information.The descend number of errors was 1518 (596 in 46 first course essays, 491 in 58 punt division essays, and 431 in 44 tercet social class essay). The average number of errors per student was 13. 5 for the first year students, 11. 2 for the sulfur year students, and 9. 8 for the one-third year students. Considering the short length of the essay, these were not small numbers, although the average number of errors reduced according to the students year in school. As a sum total, syntactic errors dominated the rest at 29%, followed by lexical errors (21%), morphological errors in nouns and mechanical errors (18%), and morphological errors (14%).According to the school year, the approximately common errors notice in first year essays were lexical errors, which comprised 24% of the total, while syntactic errors comprised most errors in second and third year essays, which amounted to 35. 2% and 31. 1% respectively. Among the first historic period lexical errors, word choice was the most common mistake (93 in total). As for second year and third year samples, as many as 158 and 121 errors were make respectively in sentence structure. The se findings record that first year students did not have sufficient vocabulary while the second and third year students did not use it adequately.Page 6 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 6 Table 1. prevalent EFL Writing Errors in Nipponese High School Students Essays Percentage of summate Errors mark (%) Error Type 1st year 2nd year 3rd year Average Morphological Errors Lexical Errors syntactic Errors Mechanical (Verbs) Tense Form Subject-verb agreement fare Verb Errors (Nouns) Articles/determiners Noun endings Total Noun Errors Word choice Word form Informal usage Idiom error Pronoun error Total Lexical Errors Sentence structure Run-ons Fragments Total Syntactic Errors Punctuation Spelling CapitalizationTotal Mechanical Errors 5. 87 5. 87 0. 67 12. 4 10. 6 8. 22 18. 8 15. 6 1. 51 1. 01 3. 19 2. 68 24. 0 15. 3 1. 34 3. 19 19. 8 5. 7 14. 4 4. 87 25. 0 8. 96 1. 22 2. 65 12. 8 11. 0 5. 91 16. 9 13. 6 4. 07 0. 61 1. 02 3. 87 23. 2 32. 2 0. 61 2. 44 35. 2 1. 43 6. 11 4. 28 11. 8 11. 1 2. 09 4. 64 17. 9 9. 98 8. 12 18. 1 9. 51 3. 25 0. 23 1. 16 2. 55 16. 7 28. 1 1. 86 1. 16 31. 1 1. 86 11. 4 3. 02 16. 2 8. 66 3. 06 2. 65 14. 4 10. 5 7. 42 17. 9 12. 9 2. 94 0. 62 1. 79 3. 04 21. 3 25. 2 1. 27 2. 26 28. 7 3. 0 10. 6 4. 05 17. 7 Percentage of Total Errors Marked 14% 18% 21% 29% 18%Morphological Error Verbs Morphological Error Nouns Lexical Error Syntactic Error Mechanical Error Percentage of Errors by Year 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 Year Mechanical Error Syntactic Error Lexical Error Morphological Error Nouns Morphological Error Verbs Page 7 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 7 The syntactic errors, the most prevalent errors, were principally related to verbs, for example, the misuse of be-verbs, transitive and intransitive verbs, auxiliary verbs, no verb use, the word piece in indirect questions, and tense discombobulation in relation to the conditional.From an English pedagogues point of view, it was quite an foil that many students made errors in the use of basic verbs such as go, motivation and listen, such as in *I want to go my future, *I want construct a doctor, and *I want to listen the story. In the case of errors in conditional sentences, on the other hand, the structure was usually grammaticly correct, but the meaning was irrational. For example, if a writer mentioned a celebrity such as a historical man/woman, movie actor, singer, athletic supporter or an imaginary character, s/he had to make the sentence conditional.However, some utilize simple present tense. One of these examples is, *If I ride Doraemons time machine, I force out go everywhere. This cause of error was put into verb tense errors under morphological errors. As an explanation of Nipponese students use of conditional, Thompson (2001) asserts that even when students have get the hang the mechanics of forming unreal conditionals and wishes in all their complexity, the problem of concept remains. Additionally, it is difficult for Nipponese students to use conditionals correctly, for there is a distinction in the use of conditionals in English and Japanese.Another characteristic in the syntactic errors stemed from term of enlistment from Japanese, their mother tongue (L1 onus). L1 balk is considered a major obstacle to second and remote verbiage acquisition (Ellis, 2003 Ferris, 2005 Lightbrown &038 Spada, 2002 Littlewood, 2002. Some examples from students essays are as follows (a)* He challenged. (??????? ) (b)* They shoot down all over the world since 1984. (??? 1984 ????????????? ) In these sentences, the writers used English equivalents for the Japanese words, i. e. , (a) ???? chousen-suru=challenge, and (b) ????? itto-suru=hit. Incidentally, the verbs challenge and hit are transitive verbs, which means these sentences are grammatically incorrect therefore, they were classified as syntactic errors. Other syntactic errors from L1 interference are observed in Page 8 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 A ccents Asia 8 relation to the choice of prepositions. The examples are (c) *I will inwardness to childrens network of UNICEF. (?????????????????????? ) (d) *I want to marry with him. (???????? ) The writers translated the Japanese prepositional subdivision ? ni into to in example (c) and ? to into with in example (d). This type of error is common among Japanese students because transitive verbs include prepositions in their Japanese meanings therefore it is hard to distinguish whether a verb is transitive or prepositional from the translated meanings. The second dominant error category was that of lexical errors, especially in first year student essays. Here again L1 interference was observed in word choices. (e) *I compute his baseball soul is the biggest of all. (???????????????????? ) (f) *I want to hear Murasaki Shikibu three questions. ?????? 3??????? ) In (e), soul and big do not match with each other in this context of use. The writer meant to say, I work out he has the strongest spirit in baseball. In Japanese soul and spirit are given the same translation as ? (???? )tamashii. Besides, neither soul nor spirit kindle be big but rather strong. In (f), the verb hear is derived from the Japanese word ?? (?? ) kiku, which female genital organ also mean listen or ask in Japanese. These students seemed to have picked up words without view about content and collocation.Presumably, in English class, there is a beency for students not to consult dictionaries for delivery usage but to looking at up word meaning only, then memorize the main translation of the word, and use this translation regardless of context. The third and fourth prominent error categories were noun related morphological errors and mechanical errors, especially spelling mistakes. In noun errors, article errors outnumbered the rest, accounting for as much as 10% of the total. The problem with articles stems from the fact that the Japanese vocabulary has no concept of articles and the countable and uncountable distinction.It is inhering that Japanese students have difficulty in apply them correctly. In addition, articles are introduced near the end in many of grammar textbooks, which in a sense is parallel to the language Page 9 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 9 acquisition order described by Littlewood (2002) of a study of children acquiring morphemes in their native language. Plurals and articles have always been, and will continue to be difficult to teach to Japanese students, which is wherefore some teachers wait until the end of school year to introduce them in class.Spelling mistakes, grouped as mechanical errors, comprised 10% of the total number of errors. This was partly because many students utilise Japanese (katakana) pronunciation to English spellings. For example, writers who spelled *performence (performance), *calacter (character), and *confort (comfort) did not seem to spell according to his/her understanding of the pronunciati on, but from how the words sound through the filter of katakana. Lastly the problem of organization as well as the use of conjunctions needs to be mentioned.Sentences starting with because were categorized as fragments which belonged to syntactic errors, whereas sentences starting with and and so were not treated as errors. And and so are taught as conjunctions that connect two phrases that carry equal weight in the sentence, whereas because is taught as a conjunction followed by a subordinate clause. However, the fact is that as many as 75 ands and 89 sos were observed at the beginning of the students sentences. James (1998) states that learners tend to overuse connectors to support logical relationships mingled with propositions that just do not exist.It is equiprobable that some students have learned how to excogitate English writing that is, they do not know they should start with an introduction, followed by a main body, and then a conclusion, remunerative attention to the consistency of their thoughts. Those who were not old(prenominal) with English writing ended up listing items in order who they cherished to meet, what they would like to do, and where they would like to go. Without cohesive devices such as paraphrasing and rephrasing, or markers that direct the logical flow of sentences, the writers could not communicate their ideas effectively.Conclusion How, then, can teachers empower students to twist better writers? manifestly the class time allotted for writing is limited, yet there are things teachers can do in order to advance students Page 10 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 10 writing in other English classes. mind from the fact that sentence fragments outnumbered other errors in this study, teachers need to draw students attention to the whole sentence structure and sentence combination when discussing verbs and other grammar points in class.The confusion mingled with transitive/intransitive verbs and prepositional ver bs can be pointed out in recitation class, bringing cognisance to the differences between English and Japanese. When students come up with a upstart verb, or even a acquainted(predicate) one, they should be aware of the conceptual rift between English and Japanese. One good example of a split between Japanese and English is the word ?? (to see). in that location are many more English verbs for miru. In Japanaese miru is used when you perceive with your eyes, when you memorize, look, view, degenerate or investigate when you take foreboding of somebody like children or inauspicious people, as in kodomo wo miru.You can even say miru when you interpret something, like mitemiru or yattemiru, literally try to see and try to do respectively. Therefore, it is confusing for students to select the fitted equivalent of miru in English. They have to think about the context. Kowalski (2005) gives usages of ?? in Figure 4 Figure 4 Different kinds of meanings associated with ?? see (so mething that falls within your field of vision) look (intentionally at a stationary object) ?? watch (something moving) Also, the gap between English and Japanese applies not only at sentential level but also to the lexical level.As I mentioned earlier, L1 interference affects both sentence structure and word choice. Underlying knowledge of usage and collocation enables students to choose the accountability words in right the places in their writing. Because of the avalanche of Japanese-English in the media, however, it has become even more difficult to eliminate these Japanglish words from students vocabulary. Teachers and learners should pay special attention not reinforce these words and phrases in the English language classroom. Page 11 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 11Good writing, however, does not rely only on grammatical and lexical accuracy but also on the creativity in context and the logical flow of sentences. In order to write coherent, well-structured para graphs and essays, the writers have to be seminal and concentrate on the content as well. First, teachers can assist students raise their awareness of how to organize English writing, and how units of sentences and paragraphs are committed with one another to form substantive text. By recognizing the importance of coherency in their writing, the students can dedicate themselves to the ideas or message that they are trying to convey.I employ operate writing for the improvement of this skill. In demarcation to translation or guided composition, bring writing emphasizes the plowes such as planning, drafting, and reviewing (Johnson &038 Johnson, 1998 cited in Furneaux, 2000). In this contest, only a few participants seemed to employ this approach, possibly because of the time constraints of the competition. By reflecting on their writing process, students will internalize their grammatical and lexical knowledge and utilize it for production.Another effective approach to improve w riting skill is to work on other language skills. All four skills are interconnected. Even though writing classes are not consistently available in school curriculums, compared to reading and oral communication classes, students can cultivate their writing skills by consciously reading or listening. Krashen and Terrell (1983) claim that speech and writing production emerges by focusing on listening and reading. spacious reading outside of the class, for instance, will become a rich source for extensive writing.Exposure to authentic writing will help students expand their vocabulary and write well-organized, middling cohesive essays. In conclusion, I regard that Japanese students can become capable writers of English with the appropriate support from teachers. Quoting Kramsch (1993) Teachers have to impart a body of knowledge, but learners have to discover that knowledge for themselves in order to internalize it (p. 6). I suggest that teachers integrate the grammar focus while e ncouraging creativity and teaching organizational form.Learners, on the other hand, can enrich their knowledge of language by taking every opportunity to use it, developing learning strategies outside of the class, and reflecting on the writing process before, during and after they write. Page 12 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 12 References Ellis, R. (2003). Second language acquisition. (8 th ed. ). Oxford Oxford University Press. Ferris, D. R. (2005). word of error in second language writing. Ann Arbor The University of Michigan Press. Furneaux, C. (2000). Process writing.The University of rendition school of linguistics and applied language studies. Retrieved September 29, 2005, from http//www. rgd. ac. uk/AcaDeps/cl/slas/process. htm James, C. (1998). Errors in language learning and use Exploring error analysis. Essex Pearson Education Limited. Kowalski, C. (2005). Translation in the writing class friend or foe? In K. Bradford-Watts, C. Ikeguchi, &038 M. Swanson (E ds. ). JALT2004 Conference Proceedings. capital of Japan JALT Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and finale in language teaching. New York Oxford University Press. Krashen, S. D. Terrell, T. (1983). The natural approach Language acquisition in the classroom. San FranciscoThe Alemany Press. Lightbrown, P. M. &038 Spada, N. (2002). How languages are learned. (2 nd. ed). Oxford Oxford University Press. Littlewood, W. (2002). Foreign and second language learning. (17 th ed. ). Cambridge Cambridge University Press. Minegishi, H. (2005, March). The questionnaire result. Saitama high school English education bulletin, 41. 49-59. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology. The course of study for opposed languages. 2003, March). Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http//www. mext. go. jp/english/shotou/030301. htm Sonoda, N. (2005). A comparative study of two approaches to English writing translation and process writing. In K. Bradford-Watts, C. Ikeguchi, &038 M. Swanson (Eds. ). JALT2004 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo JALT Thompson, I. (2001). Japanese speakers. In M. Swan &038 B. smith (Eds), Learner English A Page 13 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 13 teachers guide to interference and other problems. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.