Monday, January 7, 2019
Citation of Error Analysis Essay
??? ?????? ????? html ????? http//www. accentsasia. org/1-2/kato. pdf . ???? G o o g l e ???????? ?????? ??? ????? html ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ????????. scalawag 1 intensiveness 1 figure of speech 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 1 Citation Kato, A. (2006). mis understanding analysis of postgraduate tame domesticate school-age child opines. Accents Asia On railway line, 1 (2), 1-13. operable http//www. accentsasia. org/1-2/kato. pdf error Analysis of graduate(prenominal) enlighten Student Essays Asako Kato Fudooka Seiwa High School IntroductionEver since the macrocosm of oral chat into the school program in 1989, speaking has drawn heed as an important skill for Nipp superstarse students to master. A variety of speaking and auditory modality practices switch been experimented within high school position cliquees. Writing has in like manner been include as an all-inclusive practice. The 2003 revision of the cut of Study emphasizes paper as a vehicle of communication to convey pass ons check to the purpose and the situation (MEXT, 2003).However, in many an(prenominal) of the university entrance exam-oriented high schools, makeup classes atomic number 18 modified into grammar-centered classes in some different treatments, the students atomic number 18 accustomed to pen short meters base upon the anatomical structures or the grammar points they ar taught, and chances of composition trenchant essays atomic number 18 limited (Minegishi, 2005). It is true that grammar touch is needed for accurate production, besides it is a ch each(prenominal)enge to teach how to write essays or plane paragraphs within the available classroom hours, with the exception perhaps of well-nigh conflicting terminology elective courses in conduct high schools.Under these circumstances, the side Composition portion of the Saitama Senior High School position education and Research Association hosts writing contests, for the purpose of encourage students to test their slope fellowship and to enhance their production skills in the form of writing. The contest consists of ii sections a shift section and an essay writing pageboy 2 pot 1 round 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 2 section. In the essay section the participants be addicted topics and expected to write their opinions in more or less 200 intelligence operations. They earn 80 proceeding to work on commentary and essay writing.The translation destines be assigned consort to level, except the essay topic is the comparable for each. The translation part is tag and inn by Nipponese teachers the essays atomic number 18 evaluated by ALTs (Assistant Language Teachers) according to three criteria creativity, disposal and grammar. The winners ar chosen dep eat uping on the heart and soul points of the two sections. In this paper, I impart shed some(a) light on the essays and analyze them with a view towards identifying lines students take, which provide provide evidence of how position is knowing and what strategies students atomic number 18 employing to construct their essays.The primary guidance of this paper is on grammar in writing non creativity and administration, exactly some pedagogical raiseions for teaching and accomplishment are also mentioned. Methods The data analyzed for this tuition are mistakes in students essays written in an essay competition held in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. In this contest, the participants were given the topic, If you were to meet a celebrity, who would you desire to meet? What would you handle to ask him/her? What would you like to do with him/her? The h all in allucinations in the essays were categorised base on Ferris (2005) Analysis model (Fig. 1). Her reciprocalalty ESL writing fractures fall into four categories geogeomorphologic faults, lexical errors, syntactical errors, and mechanistic errors. This pos ture is based upon the Description of the major(ip) error categories (Fig. 2), which covers verb errors, noun ending errors, article errors, leger upon, and censure structure (p. 92). According to James (1998), an error analysis model must be well-developed, highly elaborated, and self-explanatory (p. 95). Ferris model fulfills these needs.With this system it is easy to identify orbiculate and topical anaesthetic errors (Burt and Kiparsky, 1972, cited in James, 1998) which I added to Ferris model of major errors in guess 1. Global errors are major errors in conviction structure, which makes a sentence difficult or unrealizable to understand, whereas local anaesthetic errors are minor mistakes, which do non ca riding habit problems of comprehension. In Ferris classification, syntactic errors are considered global errors. mechanistic and lexical mistakes, on the new(prenominal) hand, are local errors. morphologic errors domiciliate be global errors, rascal 3 volume 1 come up 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 3 entirely when they do non hinder readers understanding of the content they are local errors. Figure 1 parking area ESL Writing Errors based on Ferris(2005) Model Morpholegitimate Errors global / local errors Verbs Tense, From, Subject-verb apprehension Nouns holds/ determining factors, Noun endings (plural/possessive) lexical Errors local errors countersignature cream, Word form, Informal hold of crackings and services, Idiom error, Pronoun error syntactic Errors global errors Sentence structure, Run-ons, Fragments windup(prenominal) local errorsPunctuation, Spelling, Capitalization* * Capitalization is added in this discover. Figure 2 Description of major error categories (Ferris, 2005) Verb errors All errors in verb distort or form, including relevant subject-verb pledge errors. Noun ending errors plural form or progressive ending incorrect, omitted, or extra includes relevant subject-verb agreement errors Article errors Article or other determiner incorrect, omitted, or unnecessary Word wrong All specific lexical errors in word prize or word form, including preposition and pronoun errors.Spelling errors only include if the (apparent) mis recite resulted in an actual side word. Sentence structure Errors in sentence/cla physical exercise boundaries(run-ons, fragments, comma butterfly splices), word enjoin, omitted talking to or phrases, unnecessary words or phrases other unidiomatic sentence construction. Participants The essays analyzed for this field of battle were written by 148 high school students 46 startle-class honours degree division students, 58 back up course of instruction students, and 44 tertiary form students 48 males and 100 females. The participants high schools consisted of twenty populace schools and two private schools.Most of these scallywag 4 deal 1 function 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 4 schools are considered academic high schools in that they prepare students fo r university exams, which spuriouss the students black market to be highly motivated and are expected to be able to lend oneself their slope grammar, structure experience and verbiage in writing. Procedure All errors were attach and classified. They were first classified into global errors or local errors. The verb- associate errors were considered as verb errors, therefore, they were considered geomorphological errors.However, astonishment in the use of transitive/intransitive verb verb verbs was considered a global syntactic error because it affects the unanimous sentence structure. Also, tense errors were evaluate because the essay topic If you were to meet a celebrity? presumably requires the use of the conditional. As long as the errors did not interfere with the understanding of the sentence, they were put into tense errors, i. e. , morphological errors. It was sometimes difficult to draw the line amid lexical errors and mechanical errors that is, whether the word is a wrong choice or simply a spelling mistake.If the word had a separate center but exists as a word, then it was tempered as lexical error otherwise, it was marked as a mechanical error. However, if an conflicting word choice disrupts the meaning in the whole sentence, it was considered a syntactic error. In short, the decision of error classification depends on each sentence. As for repeated mechanical errors in the same sentence, i. e. , spelling mistakes, punctuation, and capitalization, the twofold mistakes were counted as one. Findings and Discussion First of all, not all errors were easily categorized some went beyond and across the categories.In each result, errors were conservatively identified and classified according to the seriousness of the problem. If one major error include other minor errors, then in concert they were considered to be a major error. For use, a sentence *And, I loss to *go to abroad such as the UK, the US, *French, *Australlia and so on was categorized as one syntactic error because the misuse of verb and adverb (go to abroad) causes sentence diffusion, scour though this sentence included one lexical error Page 5 Volume 1 come 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 5 (French) and one mechanical error (Australlia).Secondly, a danger with lists of common ESL/EFL errors, as Ferris (2005) herself points out, is that they may be over-generalized to all students. Of course, individual students have different nomenclature capabilities and learning traits for example, one student unendingly omitted articles and another student confuse tense of verbs all finished her essay. Although the statistics give a general picture of the problems, these do not apply to either student. While retentivity these considerations in mind, the statistics provide inte pass offing information.The descend number of errors was 1518 (596 in 46 first course essays, 491 in 58 punt division essays, and 431 in 44 tercet social class essay). The average number of errors per student was 13. 5 for the first year students, 11. 2 for the sulfur year students, and 9. 8 for the one-third year students. Considering the short length of the essay, these were not small numbers, although the average number of errors reduced according to the students year in school. As a sum total, syntactic errors dominated the rest at 29%, followed by lexical errors (21%), morphological errors in nouns and mechanical errors (18%), and morphological errors (14%).According to the school year, the approximately common errors notice in first year essays were lexical errors, which comprised 24% of the total, while syntactic errors comprised most errors in second and third year essays, which amounted to 35. 2% and 31. 1% respectively. Among the first historic period lexical errors, word choice was the most common mistake (93 in total). As for second year and third year samples, as many as 158 and 121 errors were make respectively in sentence structure. The se findings record that first year students did not have sufficient vocabulary while the second and third year students did not use it adequately.Page 6 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 6 Table 1. prevalent EFL Writing Errors in Nipponese High School Students Essays Percentage of summate Errors mark (%) Error Type 1st year 2nd year 3rd year Average Morphological Errors Lexical Errors syntactic Errors Mechanical (Verbs) Tense Form Subject-verb agreement fare Verb Errors (Nouns) Articles/determiners Noun endings Total Noun Errors Word choice Word form Informal usage Idiom error Pronoun error Total Lexical Errors Sentence structure Run-ons Fragments Total Syntactic Errors Punctuation Spelling CapitalizationTotal Mechanical Errors 5. 87 5. 87 0. 67 12. 4 10. 6 8. 22 18. 8 15. 6 1. 51 1. 01 3. 19 2. 68 24. 0 15. 3 1. 34 3. 19 19. 8 5. 7 14. 4 4. 87 25. 0 8. 96 1. 22 2. 65 12. 8 11. 0 5. 91 16. 9 13. 6 4. 07 0. 61 1. 02 3. 87 23. 2 32. 2 0. 61 2. 44 35. 2 1. 43 6. 11 4. 28 11. 8 11. 1 2. 09 4. 64 17. 9 9. 98 8. 12 18. 1 9. 51 3. 25 0. 23 1. 16 2. 55 16. 7 28. 1 1. 86 1. 16 31. 1 1. 86 11. 4 3. 02 16. 2 8. 66 3. 06 2. 65 14. 4 10. 5 7. 42 17. 9 12. 9 2. 94 0. 62 1. 79 3. 04 21. 3 25. 2 1. 27 2. 26 28. 7 3. 0 10. 6 4. 05 17. 7 Percentage of Total Errors Marked 14% 18% 21% 29% 18%Morphological Error Verbs Morphological Error Nouns Lexical Error Syntactic Error Mechanical Error Percentage of Errors by Year 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 Year Mechanical Error Syntactic Error Lexical Error Morphological Error Nouns Morphological Error Verbs Page 7 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 7 The syntactic errors, the most prevalent errors, were principally related to verbs, for example, the misuse of be-verbs, transitive and intransitive verbs, auxiliary verbs, no verb use, the word piece in indirect questions, and tense discombobulation in relation to the conditional.From an English pedagogues point of view, it was quite an foil that many students made errors in the use of basic verbs such as go, motivation and listen, such as in *I want to go my future, *I want construct a doctor, and *I want to listen the story. In the case of errors in conditional sentences, on the other hand, the structure was usually grammaticly correct, but the meaning was irrational. For example, if a writer mentioned a celebrity such as a historical man/woman, movie actor, singer, athletic supporter or an imaginary character, s/he had to make the sentence conditional.However, some utilize simple present tense. One of these examples is, *If I ride Doraemons time machine, I force out go everywhere. This cause of error was put into verb tense errors under morphological errors. As an explanation of Nipponese students use of conditional, Thompson (2001) asserts that even when students have get the hang the mechanics of forming unreal conditionals and wishes in all their complexity, the problem of concept remains. Additionally, it is difficult for Nipponese students to use conditionals correctly, for there is a distinction in the use of conditionals in English and Japanese.Another characteristic in the syntactic errors stemed from term of enlistment from Japanese, their mother tongue (L1 onus). L1 balk is considered a major obstacle to second and remote verbiage acquisition (Ellis, 2003 Ferris, 2005 Lightbrown &038 Spada, 2002 Littlewood, 2002. Some examples from students essays are as follows (a)* He challenged. (??????? ) (b)* They shoot down all over the world since 1984. (??? 1984 ????????????? ) In these sentences, the writers used English equivalents for the Japanese words, i. e. , (a) ???? chousen-suru=challenge, and (b) ????? itto-suru=hit. Incidentally, the verbs challenge and hit are transitive verbs, which means these sentences are grammatically incorrect therefore, they were classified as syntactic errors. Other syntactic errors from L1 interference are observed in Page 8 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 A ccents Asia 8 relation to the choice of prepositions. The examples are (c) *I will inwardness to childrens network of UNICEF. (?????????????????????? ) (d) *I want to marry with him. (???????? ) The writers translated the Japanese prepositional subdivision ? ni into to in example (c) and ? to into with in example (d). This type of error is common among Japanese students because transitive verbs include prepositions in their Japanese meanings therefore it is hard to distinguish whether a verb is transitive or prepositional from the translated meanings. The second dominant error category was that of lexical errors, especially in first year student essays. Here again L1 interference was observed in word choices. (e) *I compute his baseball soul is the biggest of all. (???????????????????? ) (f) *I want to hear Murasaki Shikibu three questions. ?????? 3??????? ) In (e), soul and big do not match with each other in this context of use. The writer meant to say, I work out he has the strongest spirit in baseball. In Japanese soul and spirit are given the same translation as ? (???? )tamashii. Besides, neither soul nor spirit kindle be big but rather strong. In (f), the verb hear is derived from the Japanese word ?? (?? ) kiku, which female genital organ also mean listen or ask in Japanese. These students seemed to have picked up words without view about content and collocation.Presumably, in English class, there is a beency for students not to consult dictionaries for delivery usage but to looking at up word meaning only, then memorize the main translation of the word, and use this translation regardless of context. The third and fourth prominent error categories were noun related morphological errors and mechanical errors, especially spelling mistakes. In noun errors, article errors outnumbered the rest, accounting for as much as 10% of the total. The problem with articles stems from the fact that the Japanese vocabulary has no concept of articles and the countable and uncountable distinction.It is inhering that Japanese students have difficulty in apply them correctly. In addition, articles are introduced near the end in many of grammar textbooks, which in a sense is parallel to the language Page 9 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 9 acquisition order described by Littlewood (2002) of a study of children acquiring morphemes in their native language. Plurals and articles have always been, and will continue to be difficult to teach to Japanese students, which is wherefore some teachers wait until the end of school year to introduce them in class.Spelling mistakes, grouped as mechanical errors, comprised 10% of the total number of errors. This was partly because many students utilise Japanese (katakana) pronunciation to English spellings. For example, writers who spelled *performence (performance), *calacter (character), and *confort (comfort) did not seem to spell according to his/her understanding of the pronunciati on, but from how the words sound through the filter of katakana. Lastly the problem of organization as well as the use of conjunctions needs to be mentioned.Sentences starting with because were categorized as fragments which belonged to syntactic errors, whereas sentences starting with and and so were not treated as errors. And and so are taught as conjunctions that connect two phrases that carry equal weight in the sentence, whereas because is taught as a conjunction followed by a subordinate clause. However, the fact is that as many as 75 ands and 89 sos were observed at the beginning of the students sentences. James (1998) states that learners tend to overuse connectors to support logical relationships mingled with propositions that just do not exist.It is equiprobable that some students have learned how to excogitate English writing that is, they do not know they should start with an introduction, followed by a main body, and then a conclusion, remunerative attention to the consistency of their thoughts. Those who were not old(prenominal) with English writing ended up listing items in order who they cherished to meet, what they would like to do, and where they would like to go. Without cohesive devices such as paraphrasing and rephrasing, or markers that direct the logical flow of sentences, the writers could not communicate their ideas effectively.Conclusion How, then, can teachers empower students to twist better writers? manifestly the class time allotted for writing is limited, yet there are things teachers can do in order to advance students Page 10 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 10 writing in other English classes. mind from the fact that sentence fragments outnumbered other errors in this study, teachers need to draw students attention to the whole sentence structure and sentence combination when discussing verbs and other grammar points in class.The confusion mingled with transitive/intransitive verbs and prepositional ver bs can be pointed out in recitation class, bringing cognisance to the differences between English and Japanese. When students come up with a upstart verb, or even a acquainted(predicate) one, they should be aware of the conceptual rift between English and Japanese. One good example of a split between Japanese and English is the word ?? (to see). in that location are many more English verbs for miru. In Japanaese miru is used when you perceive with your eyes, when you memorize, look, view, degenerate or investigate when you take foreboding of somebody like children or inauspicious people, as in kodomo wo miru.You can even say miru when you interpret something, like mitemiru or yattemiru, literally try to see and try to do respectively. Therefore, it is confusing for students to select the fitted equivalent of miru in English. They have to think about the context. Kowalski (2005) gives usages of ?? in Figure 4 Figure 4 Different kinds of meanings associated with ?? see (so mething that falls within your field of vision) look (intentionally at a stationary object) ?? watch (something moving) Also, the gap between English and Japanese applies not only at sentential level but also to the lexical level.As I mentioned earlier, L1 interference affects both sentence structure and word choice. Underlying knowledge of usage and collocation enables students to choose the accountability words in right the places in their writing. Because of the avalanche of Japanese-English in the media, however, it has become even more difficult to eliminate these Japanglish words from students vocabulary. Teachers and learners should pay special attention not reinforce these words and phrases in the English language classroom. Page 11 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 11Good writing, however, does not rely only on grammatical and lexical accuracy but also on the creativity in context and the logical flow of sentences. In order to write coherent, well-structured para graphs and essays, the writers have to be seminal and concentrate on the content as well. First, teachers can assist students raise their awareness of how to organize English writing, and how units of sentences and paragraphs are committed with one another to form substantive text. By recognizing the importance of coherency in their writing, the students can dedicate themselves to the ideas or message that they are trying to convey.I employ operate writing for the improvement of this skill. In demarcation to translation or guided composition, bring writing emphasizes the plowes such as planning, drafting, and reviewing (Johnson &038 Johnson, 1998 cited in Furneaux, 2000). In this contest, only a few participants seemed to employ this approach, possibly because of the time constraints of the competition. By reflecting on their writing process, students will internalize their grammatical and lexical knowledge and utilize it for production.Another effective approach to improve w riting skill is to work on other language skills. All four skills are interconnected. Even though writing classes are not consistently available in school curriculums, compared to reading and oral communication classes, students can cultivate their writing skills by consciously reading or listening. Krashen and Terrell (1983) claim that speech and writing production emerges by focusing on listening and reading. spacious reading outside of the class, for instance, will become a rich source for extensive writing.Exposure to authentic writing will help students expand their vocabulary and write well-organized, middling cohesive essays. In conclusion, I regard that Japanese students can become capable writers of English with the appropriate support from teachers. Quoting Kramsch (1993) Teachers have to impart a body of knowledge, but learners have to discover that knowledge for themselves in order to internalize it (p. 6). I suggest that teachers integrate the grammar focus while e ncouraging creativity and teaching organizational form.Learners, on the other hand, can enrich their knowledge of language by taking every opportunity to use it, developing learning strategies outside of the class, and reflecting on the writing process before, during and after they write. Page 12 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 12 References Ellis, R. (2003). Second language acquisition. (8 th ed. ). Oxford Oxford University Press. Ferris, D. R. (2005). word of error in second language writing. Ann Arbor The University of Michigan Press. Furneaux, C. (2000). Process writing.The University of rendition school of linguistics and applied language studies. Retrieved September 29, 2005, from http//www. rgd. ac. uk/AcaDeps/cl/slas/process. htm James, C. (1998). Errors in language learning and use Exploring error analysis. Essex Pearson Education Limited. Kowalski, C. (2005). Translation in the writing class friend or foe? In K. Bradford-Watts, C. Ikeguchi, &038 M. Swanson (E ds. ). JALT2004 Conference Proceedings. capital of Japan JALT Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and finale in language teaching. New York Oxford University Press. Krashen, S. D. Terrell, T. (1983). The natural approach Language acquisition in the classroom. San FranciscoThe Alemany Press. Lightbrown, P. M. &038 Spada, N. (2002). How languages are learned. (2 nd. ed). Oxford Oxford University Press. Littlewood, W. (2002). Foreign and second language learning. (17 th ed. ). Cambridge Cambridge University Press. Minegishi, H. (2005, March). The questionnaire result. Saitama high school English education bulletin, 41. 49-59. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology. The course of study for opposed languages. 2003, March). Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http//www. mext. go. jp/english/shotou/030301. htm Sonoda, N. (2005). A comparative study of two approaches to English writing translation and process writing. In K. Bradford-Watts, C. Ikeguchi, &038 M. Swanson (Eds. ). JALT2004 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo JALT Thompson, I. (2001). Japanese speakers. In M. Swan &038 B. smith (Eds), Learner English A Page 13 Volume 1 Number 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 13 teachers guide to interference and other problems. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.