Monday, January 14, 2019
Alkaloids Case Study Essay
Alkaloids atomic list 18 the near diverse group of secondary metabolites and over 5000 compounds ar cognise. They atomic number 18 well-nigh commonly encountered in the pl ant kingdom, tho representatives turn over been unaffectionate from most new(prenominal) orders of organisms ranging from fungi to mammals. For days, there has been invade in their pharmacological activities, and for a long time selected place products (containing alkaloids) feature been partd as poisons for hunting, murder, euthanasia, a euphoriants, psychedelics, and stimulants (e.g. morphine and cocaine) or as medicines (e.g. ephedrine). more of our modern drugs like a shot contain the same compound or unreal analogues, and the pharmacological and toxicological properties of these compounds ar thus of immense interest and impressiveness. some two centuries have elapsed since Serturner isolated the starting natural menage clearly recognised as such, a crystalline middle that he obt ained from the opium poppy, genus Papaver somniferum, and called morphine. The name alkaloid is applied to the members of a break up of natural products of staple fibre nature, and is derived from the name vegetable alkali premier(prenominal) applied to these substances. They all owe their basic nature to an amino newton. It is more problematic than at initial might be supposed to define the term alkaloid. The work was coined in 1818 by Meissner and implies a compound similar to an alkali, referring to the basic properties of this class of substance. Meyers Konversations- Lexikon of 1896 states, Alkaloids ( fix bases) occur characteristically in plants and be frequently fantastic by their remarkable physiological activity. They contain carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen and in most cases oxygen as well in human racey cases they resemble the alkalis. advance(a) dictionary definitions only differ in minor details from those of the sure-enough(a) nontechnical literature.A defin ition due to Pelletier in 1982 includes cyclic nitrogen- containing specks which atomic number 18 true secondary metabolites (i.e. of limited occurrence and buzz offd by living organisms. simple acyclic derivatives of ammonia and simple amines are thus excluded, and the additional requirement, that the nitrogen atom must have a negative oxidation state, excludes nitro and nitroso compounds.As for new(prenominal) natural products, no uni breed system of nomenclature has so off the beaten track(predicate) been devised for alkaloids. In most cases the name of the alkaloid has been derived from the plant name. Thus, papaverine was called aft(prenominal) the Papaver species from which it was isolated. The names cocaine (from Erythoxylum coca) and atropine (from Atropa belladonna) are otherwise examples. much several alkaloids are obtained from the same plant, and the names devised for them will depend on the inspiration of the natural products chemist who isolated them.Alkaloi ds as a class have interested organic chemists partly on account of their physiological action on the animal organism, and partly on account of the intricate structural and synthetical puzzles that they pose. The chemistry of the alkaloids is but a branch of the good chemistry of nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds, but the manners by which the structures of individual bases are deduced from degradative evidence and confirmed by total price decline are regular of the methods applied for these purposes whole field the chemistry of natural products are illustrative of the general fundamental principles of organic chemistry.Structural typesAlkaloids are usually sepa compute fit to the amino acerbs (or their derivatives) from which they arise. Thus, the most important classes are derived from the following aminic sulphurouss* Ornithine and Lysine* Aromatic amino pane phenylalanine and tyrosine* Tryptophan and a moiety of mevalonoid product lineAlso a number of compounds are also derived from* Anthranilic sexually transmitted disease* Nicotinic acidThis classification however, fails to include the alkaloids derived from a polyketide or a terpenoid, with the incorporation of a nitrogen atom, ultimately from ammonia. Examples are Conine and batrachotoxin which are often known as pseudoalkaloids. Other compounds covered by Pelletiers definition also exist. Examples are the antibiotic cycloserine, mitomycin C, mushroom toxin muscimol and the purine alkaloids such as caffeine. in that respect is some other classification of the alkaloids according to the location of the nitrogen atom in sealed structural features1. Heterocyclic alkaloids2. Alkaloids with exocyclic nitrogen and aliphatic amines3. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine alkaloids4. Peptide alkaloids5. Terpene and steroidal alkaloidsClassifying the whole endure of alkaloids according to this system result in them being dividing them up un in timely as the great studyity fall into the heterocy clis group and the smallest group is the putrescine, spermidine and spermine alkaloids. accompanimentOf the more than 5000 alkaloids known, most occur in flowering plants, although the distribution is far from uniform. Thus, although 40% of all plant families have at least champion species containing alkaloids, when the 10000 plant genera are con spotred, only about 9% of these have been shown to produce alkaloids.Increasing numbers of alkaloids have been isolated from animals, insects, and microorganisms. Although mammalian alkaloids are rare, two examples are (-)-castoramine (a) from the Canadian beaver and muscopyridine (b) from the musk deer.Both compound have a role in communication as territorial print substances.Insects produce a diverseness of structural types which include the 2,6- dialkylpiperidines of the fire ant (c), the tricyclic N-oxides of the ladybird (d) and the quinazolines of the European milliped (e).Tese compounds are apply for defence.During the lowest th ree decades Marine organisms have been investigated. Amongst the alkaloids are the exceedingly complex Saxitoxin (f) produced by a red coloured dinoflagellate. The red tides contain mess aggregations of such organisms, and victuals poisoning when he toxic alkaloids are passed along the food chain to man. The Japanese puffer fish is highly valued as a culinary delicacy, but it is hazardous because its liver and ovaries contain the highly toxic tetrodotoxin.Fungi also produce alkaloids, and these too, present potential hazards as food contaminants. The ergot alkaloids, for example, Chanoclavine (g) produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, were a frequent soure of bereavement and demolition during the Middle Ages by means of the contamination of rye bread. Some of these were neurotoxic whilst others ca utilize vasocontriction.During the last 40 eld most of these non plant alkaloids have been isolated and their structures elucidated. The introduction of modern chromatographic an d spectroscopic techniques facilitated this.IsolationWork on the constitution of alkaloids is often prefaced by the problem of their isolation from plant natural or from residues later commercially important constituents have been removed. The isolation of individually alkaloid is an individual problem there are a variety of procedures which may be entitled to generic rank. There are few plants which produce a single alkaloid so the main problem is the separation of mixtures. galore(postnominal) alkaloids are basic and occur as salts of 2-hydroxybutane-1, 4-dioic acid (malic acid), or of 1,3,4,5-tetrahydroxycyclohexane (quinic acid). They rout out thus be extracted into acid solution using aqueous hydrochloric, tartaric, or citric acids. Neutral alkaloids such as colchicines or piperine, which are in fact amides, remain in the organic phase, whilst most other alkaloids are isolated after basification and extraction into ethyl acetate.Steam distillation wad be used also be use d with low molecular load alkaloids but almost invariably sudsequent purification of the crude alkaloid mixtures is cause by chromatography using silica or alumina, and then recrystallisation of the partial t wholenessly purified compounds from consequence systems like aqueous ethanol, methanol/chloroform, or methanol/acet integrity.Structure miniatureClassical eraThe classical era for structural studies on alkaloids was the nineteenth Century, though this could be extended to the 1930s (advent of x-ray crystallography) or stock-still to the 1970s (advent of high resolution NMR facilities and modern methods of mass spectroscopy. both case histories will be discussed, those of morphine and atropine.Opium has been used by man for thousands of historic period, so it is not suprising that the major active ingedient, morphine, was the starting alkaloid to be isolated in pure state (by Serturner in 1805). It was not until 1923 that Sir Robert Robinson established the stucture of morphine. chemical substance evidence for the structure is as followsStandard showed that the nitrogen atom was to the full substituted, and that the phenolic hydroxyl was present as it gave a positive FeCl3 test. two hydoxyls were present as a diacetate and dibenzoate could be create. Both compounds contained superstar olefinic forked bond as codeine absorbed one. It was found that a rock-bottom phenanthrene with a two-carbon bridge containing a tertiary nitrogen atom (with methyl as on substituent) was present, and the structure of morphine and codeine were rootage proposed in 1923 and 1925 respectively by Robinson and Gulland. Synthesis of morphine was carried out in 1956 by Gates.Atropine on the other hand, is not generally a natural product but arises by means of racemisation of (-)-hyoscyamine (see (a) beneath) and purification, and is thus ( )-hyoscyamine.(-)-hyoscyamine is the most common tropane alkaloid. In 1833 atropine was isolated from Atropa belladonna. Hydrol ysis with warm up barium hydroxide solution produced racemic tropic acid and tropine.Degradative studies and then through entailment found the structure of tropic acidExhaustive humiliation of tropine, carried out by Willstlter amongst 1985 and 1901, nominated evidence for the bicyclic structure of tropine.The most widely used process in degradative studies of alaloids is arrant(a) methylation, known as Hofmann degradeation. . This involves the pyrolysis of a quaternary ammonium hydroxide to form and olefin an a tertiary baseTo ensure the complete removal of the nitrogen atom when it constitutes part of a ring, two degrdations must be carried out. When exhaustive methylation of of cyclic compounds might be expected to give 1,4-dienes, the alkaline conditions of the reception may result in the migration of one of the double bonds to give a 1,3-diene. For example, the exhaustive methylation of N-methylpiperidine gives 1,3-pentadiene (piperylene) and not 1,4-pentadiene.The diene is then easily hydrogenated to form a saturated hydrocarbon. If Hofmann abjection fails to bring about ring fission of cyclic amines, Emde adulteration, invoving catalytic diminution of a quaternary salt by sodium amalgam or sodium in fluent ammonia, may be applied. For example, attempted Hofmann degradation of N-methyltetrahydroquinoline methoxide results in regeneration of the parent base, while Emde reduction with sodium amalgam affords the ring-opened amine.Alkaloids containing diphenyl ether linkages, for example, bis-benzylisoquinoline, are cleaved into two fragments by reduction with sodium in liquid ammonia. For example, the structure of the alkaloid dauricine was established by reductive cleavage of O-methyl-dauricine. forward-looking eraDuring the last 30 years, structure elucidation has benn facilitated by the use of mass spectroscopy, and 1H and 13C NMR techniques. It is now likely to determine the structure in days with a few milligrams or less of pure compound. It took 118 years to determine the structure of morphine. The mass spectrum data for morphine is highly instructive and is shown to a lower place and would have helped howling(a)ly years ago.Once the structure of an alkaloid is known, partial or total synthesis butt joint be attempted.BiosynthesisIt is possible to determine the amino acid from which an alkaloid is derived just by looking at the structure. Before availability of radio-isotopes 14C and tritium, and more recently the stable isotopes 13C and 15N it was only possible to speculate about the likely biosynthetic pathways. This was sometimes successful as for example, the suggested pathway to the isoquinoline alkaloid is as followsIt is possible to divide the biosynthesis of the alkaloids into two categories according to whether products are obtained from the amino acids ornithine and lysine, or the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophane.Alkaloids derived from ornithine and lysinePyrrolidine alkaloids hygrine, cocaine, tropinone, hyoscyamine etcPiperidine alkaoids piperine, (-)-lobeline etcQuinolizidine alkaloids sparteine, cytosine, (-)-lupinine etcPyridine alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, anatabine etcAlkaloids derived from phenylalanine and tyrosineMonocyclic compounds hordenine etcTetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine (narcotine), papaverine, heroin etcAlkaloids derived from tryptophanSimple indole derivatives psilocybin, dimethyltryptamine, physostigmine etcComplex indole derivatives harmaline, echinulin, ergonovine etcNo class of naturally occurring organic substances shows such an enormous range of structures as the alkaloids with over 5000 known. It would be hopeless to discuss each one of these within the time limit. Therefore, this project is touch with the following alkaloidsMorphine ( including codeine and heroin), cocaine, Nicotine and caffein (including theophylline).These alkaloids are present in enormous quantities in the world and seem appropriate to be discussed due to the received interest in their make particularly when used illegally. They are some of the most well known alkaloids.Morphine (Codeine and Heroin)When the unripe seed capsules of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is cut or pricked, a viscous liquid is exuded. After the exudates dries and darkens with motion-picture show to air, a hard but still partly sticky mass is obtained. This is opium, which has been used for more centuries by some for medicinal purposes. Opium is important as a painkilling drug in its own right, but is also the ejaculate of other analgesic drugs such as morphine and heroin. Mankind had notice the use of opium by the time of the earliest written records. In fact, the first recorded use of opium as a painkiller was around 6000 years ago by the Sumerians, and the Babylonian and Egyptian writings contain some(prenominal) references to the value of opium preparations for the relief of pain. Thomas Sydenha m, the 17th Century pioneer of side of meat medicine wrote, Among the remedies which it has pleased Almighty God to give to man to take up its sufferings, none is so universal and so efficacious as opium. Nowadays, although opium is no longer regareded as a universal analgesic, it is still a actually important source of morphine.The pharmacologically active constituents of opium have been employed in medicine for many thousand of years. During the 19th century these constituents were isolated as pure chemical entities.Morphine is a naturally occurring substance and is the major constituent of opium, constituting about 10% (sometimes up to 20%) of its weight.Morphine was first isolated in 1805 by Friedrich Sertrner. However, its basic structure was not right determined until 120 years later. Morphine provides symptomatic relief of moderately severe to severe pain. Morphine acts as an anesthetic without decreasing consciousness, and it is one of the most powerful analgesics known . However, it also suppresses the repiratory system, and high doses send packing cause death by respiratory failure. Its analgesic properties are related to the ability of the molecule to fit into and block a specific sit on a nerve cell. This eliminates the action of the pain receptorCocaineCocaine is obtained from coca leaves (Erythryloxum coca) and has the formula C17H23O4N and a molecular weight of 303.39. The anaesthetic properties of cocaine were first recognised by Koller in 1882, but it has now been largely replaced in the clinic by synthetic analogues due to its widespread abuse as a narcotic. It is, however, still much used as a stimulant by Andean Indians. After chewing the leaves, they are easily fatigued and can go on for long periods without food.Cocaine is shipped and sold in the form of the wet-soluble hydrochloride salt, which may be ingested through the nasal passages by let loose orally and intravenously. There are severe physical and psychological side effects of the drug, such as brain seizures, respiratory collapse, flavour attack, paranoia, and depression.Cocaine may be hydrolysed by acids or alkalis to methyl alcohol, benzoic acid, and (-)-ecgonine, C9H15O3 N only partial hydrolysis, to benzoyl- (-)-ecgonine, C16 H19O4 N, and methyl alcohol when the alkaloid is boiled with water.Cocaine can be regarded as being derived from ornithine. Willsttter worked on a tortuous synthesis (of about 20 steps) of tropinone between 1900 and 1903, but in 1917 Robinson reported his one-pot synthesis and also provided what was probably the first example of a formal retrosynthetic analysis. He stated By imaginary hydrolysis at the points indicated by the dotted lines, the substance may be resolved into succinaldehyde, methylamine and acetone.The yield of this reaction was unretentive but Schpf and Lehmann reported optimised conditions (buffered solution at pH5 and 25C) which allowed 85% yield. A variety of mechanisms are possible and the one shown bel ow envisages a reaction between the enol form of acetone dicarboxylate and the condensation product from succinaldehyde and methylamine.Willsttter made his own contributions found on this type of chemistry, and completed simple synthesis of tropinone in 1921 and a synthesis of cocaine in 1923. The synthesis of cocaine is as followsA Robinson- type reaction yielded the expected azabicyclo structure but with a causeless axial stereochemistry for the carbomethoxyl group. Racemic cocaine was formed after separation of the diastereoisomeric products on the reduction of the ketone and benzoylation of the mixture of alcohols.An important aspect of Robinsons route is that it represented the first biomimetic synthesis of an alkaloid. He provided inspiration for others to consider possible biosynthetic pathways, sooner planning their synthetic routes to alkaloids.NicotineNicotine, present in dried baccy leaves of the plant nicotiana tabacum in 2-8% concentration, is the active ingredient in cigarettes and other tobacco products. The campaign tobacco is used by so many mountain is because it contains this powerful drug nicotine. When tobacco is smoked, nicotine is absorbed by the lungs and quickly moves into the blood electric current, where it is circulated throughout the brain. All of this happens very rapidly. In fact, nicotine reaches the brain within 8 seconds after someone inhales tobacco smoke. Nicotine can also enter the blood stream through the mucous membranes that line the mouth or nose, or even through the skin. Smoking and chewing tobacco have been connected to heart and lung disease and cancer, mainly a result of the mien of carcinogens, carbon monoxide and other toxins.Nicotine affects the entire body. Nicotine acts directly on the heart to qualify heart rate and blood pressure. It also acts on the nerves that control respiration to change breathing patterns. In high concentration, nicotine is deadly. In fact, one drop of purified nicotine on the t ongue will kill a person. Its so fatal that it has been used as a pesticide for centuries.So why do nation smoke? The mode of action of nicotine is complex. Ingestion of the molecule may spend a penny or calm the user and it may affect his or her mood, appetite, and cognition.There appears to be little doubt that nicotine is an addictive drug, and the debate about how to decide its availability is ongoing.Nicotine is part of the pyridine alkaloids and is the chief alkaloid of tobacco.It can therefore be classed as a tobacco alkaloid. Nicotine has the empirical formula C10 H14 N2, a molecular weight of 162.26 and was first observed by Vanquelin in 1809 and isolated 19 years later by Posselt and Reimann. Its structure is as followsIt is a colourless liquid with a boiling point of 246.1-246.2C and is miscible in all proportions with water below 60 and above 210. It is less soluble between these temperatures.When oxidized with chromic acid it yields an amino acid, C6H5O2N, which ma y be decarboxylated to pyridinecarboxylic acid. Nicotine is therefore a 3-substituted pyridine and that the substituent is a saturated group containing five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The alkaloid forms a crystalline addition compound with zinc chloride, and when this is heated with caustic lime pyridine, pyrrole and methylamine are obtained, suggesting that the structure be as above (1). This was supported by the degradation of the alkaloid to N-methylproline (1) to (5) (below), the oxidation of dibromocotinine (6) to nicotinc acid, malonic acid and methylamine (6) to (7). Also, by the reductive hydrolysis of bromocotinine to methylamine and the dihydroxy-acid (8).The structure of nicotine was at last confirmed by synthesis. Three syntheses of nicotine have been recorded.The first was based on the discovery that N-acetylpyrrole is transformed by heat to C-acetylpyrrole shown to be ?-acetylpyrrole.Pictet and Crepieux applied this reaction to N- pyridylpyrrole (3) (below) obtained by the reaction of -aminopyridine1 with mucic acid (2).The compound 31- pyridyl-2-pyrrole (4) was formed. An attempt to methylate the pyrrole nitrogen by heating the potassium derivative with yielded (5) (methiodide of 31- pyridyl-N-methyl-2-pyrrole). Distillation of this with calcium oxide gave nicotyrine (6). Selective hydrogenation of the pyrrole meat with a palladium-carbon catalyst converted nicotyrine (6) to nicotine with about a 25% yield.PICTETS SYNTHESISPictets classical synthesis involves two steps at high temperatures, one of which is a rearrangement. It cannot therefore be regarded as unambiguous.However, a second synthesis by Spth and Bretschneider involves no rearrangement at high temperature and are thus structurally specific.SPATHS SYNTHESIS(1) (Above) was converted into (2) via electrolytic reduction, which on treatment with potassium and methyl sulphate gave (3) (N-methylpyrrolidone). Ethyl nicotinate was then condensed with (3) in the presence of sodium ethanoate and the resulting -pyridyl-1- -(N1 methyl-?1- pyrrolidonyl) ketone (4) was hydrolysed with fuming hydrochloric acid at 130. The derived amino ketone (5) was reduced with zinc and sodium hydroxide to the corresponding alcohol (6), which was converted to nicotine on treatment with hydrogen iodide and potassium hydroxide.A third synthesis of nicotine by Craig was also carried outCRAIGS SYNTHESISNicotinonitrile (1) (above) was reacted with ?- ethoxypropylmagnesium bromide. The product of the reaction (2) (3-pyridyl-?-ethoxypropylketone) formed an oxime (3), which was reduced to an amino derivative (4). On heating to 150-155 with 48% hydrobromic acid this was converted to nornicotine (5), which in turn was methylated to nicotine.The pyridine ring in nicotine is derived from nicotine acid, which itself is derived from aspartic acid and glyceraldehyde-3- phosphateThe remaining steps en route to nicotine are shown belowCaffeineThe purine system occurs widely in nature. Two purin es, adenine and guanine, are constituents of the nucleic acids adenine is a component of coenzymes I and II, of flavin adenine dinucleotide and of adenosine with 3 distinguished compounds caffeine, theophylline and theobromine. They are physiologically active constituents of coffee, hot chocolate, and tea. The compounds have different biochemical effects, and are present in different ratios in different plant sources. These compounds are very similar and differ only by the presence of methyl groups in two positions of chemical structure as shown belowThey are easily oxidised to uric acid and other methyluric acids, which are also similar in chemical stucture.CAFFEINE 1,3,7- trimethylxanthineSOURCES Coffee, tea, cola nuts, mate, guarana set up Stimulant of the central nervous system, cardiac muscle and respiratory system, diuretic, delays fatigue.theophylline 1,3 dimethylxanthineSOURCES TeaEFFECTS Cardiac stimulant, smooth muscle relaxant, diuretic, vasodilator.THEOBROMINE 3 ,7- dimethylxanthineSOURCES Principle alkaloid of the cocoa bean (1.5-3%), cola nuts and tea.EFFECTS Diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, cardiac stimulant, vasodilator.Theophylline has a stronger effect on heart and breathing than caffeine. For this reason it is the drug of choice in home remedies for treating asthma, bronchitis and emphysema. Theophylline found in medicine is made from extracts from coffee or tea. Theobromine is weaker than caffeine and theophylline has one tenth of the stimulating effect.When isolated in pure form, caffeine is a white crystalline powder that tastes very bitter. Recreationally, it is used to provide a boost in energy or a feeling of heightened alterness. Its often used to stay awake longer. Caffeine inhibits the action of an enzyme, phosphodiesterase, whose gambol it is to inactive a molecule called cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( adenylic acid). Cyclic -AMP is involved in the formation of glucose in the bloodstream. Deactivation of phosphodiest erase by caffeine frees cyclic AMP to do its job, more glucose appears, and we feel more energetic.Caffeine is an addictive drug. Among its many actions it operates using the same mechanisms that amphetamines, cocaine and heroin use to stimulate the brain. Caffeines effects are milder but it is manipulating the same channels and that it is one of the things that give caffeine its addictive qualities. It is one of the most widely used drugs. More than 90% of the population Britain consume it everyday and its long-term effects are of current interest.Purines are usually synthesized by Traubes method in which a 4, 5 diaminopyrimidine is treated with formic acid or, better, sodium dithioformate.4, 5- diaminopyrimidines are themselves obtained from 4- aminopyrimidines by nitrosation followed by reduction or via diazonium coupling of initiate methylene compounds followed by cyclisation and reduction. Two examples are as followsUric acid (an 8-Hydroxypurine) are made using ethyl chloro formate in place of formic acidUric acid is then the starting material for other purinesSummaryThe term alkaloid refers to any Nitrogen containing compound extracted from plants, although the word is used loosely and some compounds of non-plant origin are also commonly known as alkaloids. The name is derived from their characteristic basic properties (alkali-like), which are induced by the lone-pair of electrons on nitrogen. The basic nature of the alkaloids, in conjunction with their particular cubic architecture, gives rise to often-potent physiological activities, e.g. the narcotics morphine and heroin.The laboratory synthesis of an alkaloid can be a challenging problem. The goal nowadays is not only to synthesise the natural product, but also to do so from simple molecules by a short elegant pathway. Such syntheses have practical importance because many alkaloids are desirable drugs. Large amounts of these alkaloids are often difficult to obtain from natural sources. A simple s ynthesis can provide an alternative supply of such a drug.The 19th century was the blossom for structural studies on the alkaloids and the 20th century was notable for the large number of elegant syntheses that have been accomplished. Virtually all of the major alkaloids have now been synthesised.